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Polygraphy, design of sites, vector the schedule, a leaflet, booklets, catalogues, the outdoor advertising, Corcimari Svetlana, Moldova, Chisinau
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The program of telecasts

Countre Ho Shi the Mine, bikers and hopes - Vietnam. What do we know about Vietnam? Practically anything. Vietnam is something from the newspaper "Truth": the country filled on decades of war, napalm, Вьетконг, зенитки, beating in the sky. However modern
2003/03/14
Countre Ho Shi the Mine, bikers and hopes - Vietnam. What do we know about Vietnam? Practically anything. Vietnam is something from the newspaper "Truth": the country filled on decades of war, napalm, Вьетконг, зенитки, beating in the sky. However modern Vietnam - much more, than all these images. For the years which have passed after destructive war, this country has literally risen from economic ruin and aspires to find again itself as strong industrial and trading knot of South East Asia.

Passing street, keep for heart! 

Certainly, if you get to Hanoi at once from covered with the skyscrapers, sparkling in the afternoon and Shanghai shining by night contrast will be striking. The difference is appreciable already at the airport - planes in the field much less, and big-bellied "Боинга-747" will not see. More and more kids "737" who in China use for local aviatransportations. On a take-off field - closeness and heat: humidity above 80 percent practically on all country. Tropics...

After China where energy of economic growth is almost physically felt in air, Vietnam seems fallen asleep. The road from the airport to Hanoi rushes along rice fields, huge publicity boards on plain iron bars - boards already had time to fade slightly, but at night they simply are not visible, therefore as are not shined. Behind a bus window shabby houses, narrow streets are carried by. You wait, that here - the city centre and there other picture now will begin. Expectations will be vain: Hanoi is mainly a city in five floors and though how many нибудь these houses only in small "the European area" habitually look.

All other Hanoi makes impression of one big "шанхайчика" - in our understanding of this word. A heap of the shabby balconies, any equal line. Not at once it is possible to understand, why so the city strange looks: only having looked narrowly, you understand, that actually the street consists of the three-four-storeyed houses put "end-to-end" to each other which facade at width of no more than five metres - and happens and less than three. But deep into quarter the house leaves metres on ten-twenty: if to glance in a gate it becomes clear, that there boils, unlike for a "front" life. But personally I to glance there have not risked, as and in the street have already darkened.

The ground floor literally each house in Hanoi - a bench where everything is on sale, from refrigerators to slippers. In a corner - necessarily small "вертепчик" dark red colour in which usually to Asia Buddhist temples are painted. In "вертепчике" - будда, two cups, чайничек and an armful of smoking sticks: on successful trade. Trade boils, and not to bargain here - not to respect. The basic expression - "зьам зьа" - "reduce the price". To bargain in souvenir benches, it will suffice. All other dialogue occurs by means of the display of the calculator, universal negative мотаний a head and a walkout in protest, last means to bring down the price.

Traffic in the centre of Hanoi abates only late at night, but the car here - a rarity. However, and representation about Vietnam as about the country of bicycles - an old fairy tale. Vietnam - the country of bikers. Vietnameses it is universal have changed on motorcycles and motor scooters. Basically it "Хонды" and the Chinese fakes under "Хонду". Motorcycles are in Hanoi almost at all. They rush a continuous stream, overtaking each other and surrounding rare cars, on them go both alone, and together, and the whole families on three-four persons.

It is not enough cars, because the government takes the mad customs duties for their import. The authorities elementary are afraid: even if every tenth of three millions ханойцев will sit down for a wheel, here there will be eternal stoppers. Besides it is necessary to observe rules which simply does not exist. Traffic lights in the centre of Hanoi hardly probable will be from tens and they look more likely as a wonder. The more surprisingly, that here even not yellow light nobody goes, though also traffic controllers in streets will not see. The stream of motorcycles patiently waits green, and at this time to pass street it is possible easy. Street transition in any other place of Hanoi - test not for nervous: the stream of motorcycles does not interrupt for a second and you will wait in vain for a gleam on sidewalk. The unique way - resolutely to go forward is direct through, catching for heart. Only having reached the middle of road and having recovered the breath, you understand, why has still survived. A motorcycle - not the car, you simply go round, not reducing speed. And any failure...

"At us nobody starves. And all do business" 

Vietnam at first sight makes impression of the poor country. Hanoi looks very shabby city with which for a long time nobody painted and did not repair. If such is capital as the province looks?

But for the first time doubts in poverty of Vietnam creep in after you estimate quantity of motorcycles by which streets are hammered and by which sidewalks at shops where fuss "парковщики" are densely forced, writing down numbers мелками is direct on saddles. The Motorcycle costs недешево: is also rather inexpensive, second-hand Chinese - such it is possible to buy dollars for 400, but the average price - about thousand dollars, and expensive marks of type present "Хонды" stand and to five-six thousand. Multiplying these sums on quantity of motorcyclists which it is obvious more than pedestrians, you start to understand, that poor Vietnam looks only at first sight.

Actually the minimum salary in Hanoi seldom falls below 40-45 dollars, and the average income on a family in capital of Vietnam - to 200 dollars and above. However, in a family can be and to eight persons. But meal so cheap, and people are so unpretentious in food, that on "proforage" of the person in day the maximum dollar leaves. Our Vietnamese acquaintance (the European is simply incapable to say her name correctly: at each vowel six different tones. If you will mix, the sense absolutely another) speaks with pride: "At us nobody starves. And all do business. Our party welcomes it". And there and then starts to rummage feverishly in hopelessly cheap handbag with an impudent brand "Yves Sent-Laurent": in its bowels the mobile phone vibrates rather not cheap by sight.

The party role in Vietnam is very high. In television news on five radio channels the most part of news is occupied with news partijno-state. That Vietnam - the socialist country, you recollect where more often, than in China: here it is difficult to forget about it. Хо Ши Mines remains indisputable authority. During a meeting with the president of Vietnam the Moldavian president Vladimir Voronin has mentioned that met with Хо Ши Мином when that had a rest in Moldova, and it has caused such interest, that one of two questions who under the report needed to be set to leaders of two countries to the Vietnamese journalists, has been offered by them on the request to describe details of this meeting.

However the socialism here again - with a market shade, and this shade amplifies every year. Reforms have begun here 15 years ago, and the Vietnamese economy unlike sew all this time grew. Reforms have pulled out the country from hunger, понастроили roads, factories (here collect even "Mercedes" and "BMW"), not speaking about huge export of footwear and about millions tons of coffee, fruit and rice on which manufacture Vietnam strongly holds the second place in the world. And Vietnameses can affect the world market strongly enough. That there is at least not so an old history with a panic at the London stock exchange when the prices for coffee have fallen to record-breaking low mark because of powerful pressure upon the market from Vietnam. It even has compelled the majority of the countries - manufacturers of coffee to address to the Vietnamese farmers with requirements to reduce volumes of manufacture or to destroy a part of the crop.

Reforms in Vietnam go not so successfully as in China, and spend them not so resolutely. However for ten years, by 2000, gross national product of Vietnam has increased more than twice. Commodity deficiency is completely liquidated, export - for ten years seven times confidently grows, having reached to 2001 15 billion dollars. The centre of gravity in gross national product structure is displaced from agriculture to the industry is means, that Vietnam slowly, but truly ceases to be the agrarian country.

In 1997 the Asian financial crisis has fine pulled about economy of Vietnam which hardly has had time to get stronger. However the country has already recovered from blow: since 2000 the Vietnamese economy dynamically grows. Direct foreign investments quickly accelerate: now in Vietnam is about 3 thousand projects with the foreign capital for a total sum in 40 billion dollars.

However and problems of Vietnam are more rigid, than at China. Manufacture proceeds to remain низкоэффективным: large business in Vietnam still in most cases the state. In the country 94 large state corporations into which enters more than one and a half thousand enterprises, third of all enterprises of Vietnam are formed. These corporations use the concessionary terms given by the state, however in 2002 the income of these companies has grown all for 30 percent, and profits have decreased for 40 percent. It speaks about an extreme inefficiency of industrial sector which is in state conducting.

The trouble in that according to experts, at a huge state sector in economy in Vietnam отсуствует uniform state regulation of manufacture, and legal system is poorly compatible to a reality and is weak. Besides, the majority of the enterprises work on out-of-date technology, expenses, raw materials and half-finished products for 80 percent - import are high. Besides there is a rigid competition to the Chinese manufacturers, and how much simply to compete to China, on itself all Asia has felt already. The budget of Vietnam дефицитен - about third of all its profitable part and about 10 percent of gross national product. It is serious threat to economy and it is clear, that about advancement of social programs in Vietnam to speak very much and very difficult.

The world opens Vietnam

But reforms in Vietnam proceed. For fifteen years the country has made a huge step forward - actually "having slipped" a way from feudalism to market economy and thus having managed not to lose itself. Experience of economic reforms in China and Vietnam shows, that the success can achieve and success it will be obligatory, if the sensible economic concept the national economy is opened for an external world. This problem is solved in China leans against stable public conditions if in the country competing political clans if the state institutes are strong do not fight, laws operate, and, she should be solved and to Vietnam where the state, being present practically everywhere, not so strong holds reins of management of economy as in the Peoples Republic of China.

Vietnam, after China, gradually opens to the world: it visits to Vietnam prove also US president Bush in 2000, and the president of Russia Putin in 2001, and the introduction of Vietnam in АСЕАН. The standard of living of people has essentially raised: for five years the income per capita in a month has increased twice. It is very quite good For the country destroyed by war. Considering, that in Vietnam trans-Asiatic trading lines are crossed many, the country future looks quite optimistically.

Alexander Isaev
V.Korchmarja's photo
Cтрана Хо Ши the Mine, bikers and hopes - Vietnam. 
What do we know about Vietnam? Practically anything. Vietnam is something from the newspaper "Truth": the country filled on decades of war, napalm, Вьетконг, зенитки, beating in the sky. However modern Vietnam - much more, than all these images. For the years which have passed after destructive war, this country has literally risen from economic ruin and aspires to find again itself as strong industrial and trading knot of South East Asia.

Passing street, keep for heart! 

Certainly, if you get to Hanoi at once from covered with the skyscrapers, sparkling in the afternoon and Shanghai shining by night contrast will be striking. The difference is appreciable already at the airport - planes in the field much less, and big-bellied "Боинга-747" will not see. More and more kids "737" who in China use for local aviatransportations. On a take-off field - closeness and heat: humidity above 80 percent practically on all country. Tropics...

After China where energy of economic growth is almost physically felt in air, Vietnam seems fallen asleep. The road from the airport to Hanoi rushes along rice fields, huge publicity boards on plain iron bars - boards already had time to fade slightly, but at night they simply are not visible, therefore as are not shined. Behind a bus window shabby houses, narrow streets are carried by. You wait, that here - the city centre and there other picture now will begin. Expectations will be vain: Hanoi is mainly a city in five floors and though how many нибудь these houses only in small "the European area" habitually look.

All other Hanoi makes impression of one big "шанхайчика" - in our understanding of this word. A heap of the shabby balconies, any equal line. Not at once it is possible to understand, why so the city strange looks: only having looked narrowly, you understand, that actually the street consists of the three-four-storeyed houses put "end-to-end" to each other which facade at width of no more than five metres - and happens and less than three. But deep into quarter the house leaves metres on ten-twenty: if to glance in a gate it becomes clear, that there boils, unlike for a "front" life. But personally I to glance there have not risked, as and in the street have already darkened.

The ground floor literally each house in Hanoi - a bench where everything is on sale, from refrigerators to slippers. In a corner - necessarily small "вертепчик" dark red colour in which usually to Asia Buddhist temples are painted. In "вертепчике" - будда, two cups, чайничек and an armful of smoking sticks: on successful trade. Trade boils, and not to bargain here - not to respect. The basic expression - "зьам зьа" - "reduce the price". To bargain in souvenir benches, it will suffice. All other dialogue occurs by means of the display of the calculator, universal negative мотаний a head and a walkout in protest, last means to bring down the price.

Traffic in the centre of Hanoi abates only late at night, but the car here - a rarity. However, and representation about Vietnam as about the country of bicycles - an old fairy tale. Vietnam - the country of bikers. Vietnameses it is universal have changed on motorcycles and motor scooters. Basically it "Хонды" and the Chinese fakes under "Хонду". Motorcycles are in Hanoi almost at all. They rush a continuous stream, overtaking each other and surrounding rare cars, on them go both alone, and together, and the whole families on three-four persons.

It is not enough cars, because the government takes the mad customs duties for their import. The authorities elementary are afraid: even if every tenth of three millions ханойцев will sit down for a wheel, here there will be eternal stoppers. Besides it is necessary to observe rules which simply does not exist. Traffic lights in the centre of Hanoi hardly probable will be from tens and they look more likely as a wonder. The more surprisingly, that here even not yellow light nobody goes, though also traffic controllers in streets will not see. The stream of motorcycles patiently waits green, and at this time to pass street it is possible easy. Street transition in any other place of Hanoi - test not for nervous: the stream of motorcycles does not interrupt for a second and you will wait in vain for a gleam on sidewalk. The unique way - resolutely to go forward is direct through, catching for heart. Only having reached the middle of road and having recovered the breath, you understand, why has still survived. A motorcycle - not the car, you simply go round, not reducing speed. And any failure...

"At us nobody starves. And all do business" 

Vietnam at first sight makes impression of the poor country. Hanoi looks very shabby city with which for a long time nobody painted and did not repair. If such is capital as the province looks?

But for the first time doubts in poverty of Vietnam creep in after you estimate quantity of motorcycles by which streets are hammered and by which sidewalks at shops where fuss "парковщики" are densely forced, writing down numbers мелками is direct on saddles. The Motorcycle costs недешево: is also rather inexpensive, second-hand Chinese - such it is possible to buy dollars for 400, but the average price - about thousand dollars, and expensive marks of type present "Хонды" stand and to five-six thousand. Multiplying these sums on quantity of motorcyclists which it is obvious more than pedestrians, you start to understand, that poor Vietnam looks only at first sight.

Actually the minimum salary in Hanoi seldom falls below 40-45 dollars, and the average income on a family in capital of Vietnam - to 200 dollars and above. However, in a family can be and to eight persons. But meal so cheap, and people are so unpretentious in food, that on "proforage" of the person in day the maximum dollar leaves. Our Vietnamese acquaintance (the European is simply incapable to say her name correctly: at each vowel six different tones. If you will mix, the sense absolutely another) speaks with pride: "At us nobody starves. And all do business. Our party welcomes it". And there and then starts to rummage feverishly in hopelessly cheap handbag with an impudent brand "Yves Sent-Laurent": in its bowels the mobile phone vibrates rather not cheap by sight.

The party role in Vietnam is very high. In television news on five radio channels the most part of news is occupied with news partijno-state. That Vietnam - the socialist country, you recollect where more often, than in China: here it is difficult to forget about it. Хо Ши Mines remains indisputable authority. During a meeting with the president of Vietnam the Moldavian president Vladimir Voronin has mentioned that met with Хо Ши Мином when that had a rest in Moldova, and it has caused such interest, that one of two questions who under the report needed to be set to leaders of two countries to the Vietnamese journalists, has been offered by them on the request to describe details of this meeting.

However the socialism here again - with a market shade, and this shade amplifies every year. Reforms have begun here 15 years ago, and the Vietnamese economy unlike sew all this time grew. Reforms have pulled out the country from hunger, понастроили roads, factories (here collect even "Mercedes" and "BMW"), not speaking about huge export of footwear and about millions tons of coffee, fruit and rice on which manufacture Vietnam strongly holds the second place in the world. And Vietnameses can affect the world market strongly enough. That there is at least not so an old history with a panic at the London stock exchange when the prices for coffee have fallen to record-breaking low mark because of powerful pressure upon the market from Vietnam. It even has compelled the majority of the countries - manufacturers of coffee to address to the Vietnamese farmers with requirements to reduce volumes of manufacture or to destroy a part of the crop.

Reforms in Vietnam go not so successfully as in China, and spend them not so resolutely. However for ten years, by 2000, gross national product of Vietnam has increased more than twice. Commodity deficiency is completely liquidated, export - for ten years seven times confidently grows, having reached to 2001 15 billion dollars. The centre of gravity in gross national product structure is displaced from agriculture to the industry is means, that Vietnam slowly, but truly ceases to be the agrarian country.

In 1997 the Asian financial crisis has fine pulled about economy of Vietnam which hardly has had time to get stronger. However the country has already recovered from blow: since 2000 the Vietnamese economy dynamically grows. Direct foreign investments quickly accelerate: now in Vietnam is about 3 thousand projects with the foreign capital for a total sum in 40 billion dollars.

However and problems of Vietnam are more rigid, than at China. Manufacture proceeds to remain низкоэффективным: large business in Vietnam still in most cases the state. In the country 94 large state corporations into which enters more than one and a half thousand enterprises, third of all enterprises of Vietnam are formed. These corporations use the concessionary terms given by the state, however in 2002 the income of these companies has grown all for 30 percent, and profits have decreased for 40 percent. It speaks about an extreme inefficiency of industrial sector which is in state conducting.

The trouble in that according to experts, at a huge state sector in economy in Vietnam отсуствует uniform state regulation of manufacture, and legal system is poorly compatible to a reality and is weak. Besides, the majority of the enterprises work on out-of-date technology, expenses, raw materials and half-finished products for 80 percent - import are high. Besides there is a rigid competition to the Chinese manufacturers, and how much simply to compete to China, on itself all Asia has felt already. The budget of Vietnam дефицитен - about third of all its profitable part and about 10 percent of gross national product. It is serious threat to economy and it is clear, that about advancement of social programs in Vietnam to speak very much and very difficult.

The world opens Vietnam

But reforms in Vietnam proceed. For fifteen years the country has made a huge step forward - actually "having slipped" a way from feudalism to market economy and thus having managed not to lose itself. Experience of economic reforms in China and Vietnam shows, that the success can achieve and success it will be obligatory, if the sensible economic concept the national economy is opened for an external world. This problem is solved in China leans against stable public conditions if in the country competing political clans if the state institutes are strong do not fight, laws operate, and, she should be solved and to Vietnam where the state, being present practically everywhere, not so strong holds reins of management of economy as in the Peoples Republic of China.

Vietnam, after China, gradually opens to the world: it visits to Vietnam prove also US president Bush in 2000, and the president of Russia Putin in 2001, and the introduction of Vietnam in АСЕАН. The standard of living of people has essentially raised: for five years the income per capita in a month has increased twice. It is very quite good For the country destroyed by war. Considering, that in Vietnam trans-Asiatic trading lines are crossed many, the country future looks quite optimistically.

Alexander Isaev
V.Korchmarja's photo
Cтрана Хо Ши Мина, байкеров и надежд - Вьетнам.
Что мы знаем о Вьетнаме? Практически ничего. Вьетнам - это что-то из газеты "Правда": страна, объятая десятилетиями войны, напалм, Вьетконг, зенитки, бьющие в небо. Однако современный Вьетнам - гораздо больше, чем все эти образы. За годы, прошедшие после разрушительной войны, эта страна буквально восстала из экономической разрухи и стремится снова обрести себя в качестве сильного промышленного и торгового узла Юго-Восточной Азии.

Переходя улицу, держитесь за сердце!

Конечно, если вы попадаете в Ханой сразу из усеянного небоскребами, сверкающего днем и сияющего ночью Шанхая, то контраст будет разителен. Разница заметна уже в аэропорту - самолетов на поле заметно меньше, и пузатого "Боинга-747" не увидишь. Все больше малыши "737-е", которые в Китае используют для местных авиаперевозок. На взлетном поле - духота и зной: влажность выше 80 процентов практически по всей стране. Тропики...

После Китая, где энергия экономического роста почти физически ощущается в воздухе, Вьетнам кажется застывшим. Дорога из аэропорта в Ханой мчится вдоль рисовых полей, огромных рекламных щитов на простецких железных штангах - щиты уже успели слегка полинять, зато ночью они просто не видны, потому как не освещаются. За окном автобуса проносятся ветхие дома, узкие улицы. Ждешь, что вот - сейчас начнется центр города и уж там-то другая картина. Ожидания будут напрасными: Ханой - это преимущественно город в пять этажей, и хоть сколько нибудь привычно выглядят эти дома только в небольшом "европейском районе".

Весь остальной Ханой производит впечатление одного большого "шанхайчика" - в нашем понимании этого слова. Нагромождение ветхих балкончиков, ни одной ровной линии. Не сразу удается понять, почему так странно выглядит город: только присмотревшись, понимаешь, что на самом деле улица состоит из поставленных "впритык" друг к другу трех-четырехэтажных домов, фасад которых в ширину не больше пяти метров - а бывает и меньше трех. Зато вглубь квартала дом уходит метров на десять-двадцать: если заглянуть в подворотню, то станет ясно, что там кипит своя, непохожая на "фасадную" жизнь. Но лично я заглянуть туда не рискнул, тем более, что и на улице уже стемнело.

Первый этаж буквально каждого дома в Ханое - лавка, где продается все, от холодильников до тапочек. В углу - обязательно маленький "вертепчик" темно-красного цвета, в который обычно в Азии окрашены буддийские храмы. В "вертепчике" - будда, две чашечки, чайничек и охапка курительных палочек: на удачную торговлю. Торговля кипит, и не торговаться здесь - себя не уважать. Основное выражение - "зьам зьа" - "снижай цену". Чтобы торговаться в сувенирных лавках, этого хватит. Все прочее общение происходит посредством дисплея калькулятора, универсальных отрицательных мотаний головой и демонстративного ухода, последнего средства сбить цену.

Уличное движение в центре Ханоя стихает только поздно ночью, но автомобиль здесь - редкость. Впрочем, и представление о Вьетнаме как о стране велосипедов - старая сказка. Вьетнам - страна байкеров. Вьетнамцы поголовно пересели на мотоциклы и мотороллеры. В основном это "Хонды" и китайские подделки под "Хонду". Мотоциклы есть в Ханое почти у всех. Они мчатся непрерывным потоком, обгоняя друг друга и окружая редкие автомобили, на них едут и в одиночку, и вдвоем, и целыми семьями по три-четыре человека.

Автомобилей мало, потому что правительство берет за их ввоз бешеные таможенные пошлины. Власти элементарно боятся: если даже каждый десятый из трех миллионов ханойцев сядет за руль, здесь будут вечные пробки. К тому же придется соблюдать правила, которых просто не существует. Светофоров в центре Ханоя едва ли насчитается с десяток и выглядят они скорее как диковинка. Тем удивительнее, что здесь даже не желтый свет никто не едет, хоть и регулировщиков на улицах не увидишь. Поток мотоциклов терпеливо ждет зеленого, и в это время переходить улицу можно спокойно. Переход улицы в любом другом месте Ханоя - испытание не для слабонервных: поток мотоциклов не прерывается ни на секунду и вы напрасно будете ждать просвета на тротуаре. Единственный способ - решительно идти вперед прямо сквозь, хватаясь за сердце. Только достигнув середины дороги и отдышавшись, понимаешь, почему все еще остался в живых. Мотоцикл - не автомобиль, вас просто объезжают, не снижая скорости. И ни одной аварии...

"У нас никто не голодает. И все делают бизнес"

Вьетнам на первый взгляд производит впечатление бедной страны. Ханой выглядит очень ветхим городом, который давно никто не красил и не ремонтировал. Если такова столица, то как же выглядит провинция?

Но впервые сомнения в бедности Вьетнама закрадываются после того, как вы оцените количество мотоциклов, которыми забиты улицы и которыми плотно заставлены тротуары у магазинов, где суетятся "парковщики", записывая номера мелками прямо на седлах. Мотоцикл-то стоит недешево: есть и сравнительно недорогие, подержанные китайские - такой можно купить долларов за 400, но средняя цена - около тысячи долларов, а дорогие марки типа настоящей "Хонды" стоят и до пяти-шести тысяч. Умножая эти суммы на количество мотоциклистов, которых явно больше, чем пешеходов, начинаешь понимать, что бедным Вьетнам выглядит только на первый взгляд.

На самом деле минимальная зарплата в Ханое редко опускается ниже 40-45 долларов, а средний доход на семью в столице Вьетнама - до 200 долларов и выше. Правда, в семье может быть и до восьми человек. Но еда настолько дешевая, а люди настолько неприхотливы в пище, что на "прокорм" человека в день уходит максимум доллар. Наша вьетнамская знакомая (ее имя европеец просто неспособен правильно произнести: у каждой гласной шесть разных тонов. Если перепутаешь, смысл совсем другой) говорит с гордостью: "У нас никто не голодает. И все делают бизнес. Наша партия это приветствует". И тут же начинает лихорадочно рыться в безнадежно дешевой сумочке с нахальным клеймом "Yves Sent-Laurent": в ее недрах вибрирует весьма недешевый на вид мобильник.

Роль партии во Вьетнаме очень высока. В телевизионных новостях по пяти эфирным каналам большую часть новостей занимают новости партийно-государственные. О том, что Вьетнам - социалистическая страна, вспоминаешь куда чаще, чем в Китае: здесь об этом трудно забыть. Хо Ши Мин остается непререкаемым авторитетом. Во время встречи с президентом Вьетнама молдавский президент Владимир Воронин упомянул о том, что встречался с Хо Ши Мином, когда тот отдыхал в Молдавии, и это вызвало такой интерес, что один из двух вопросов, который по протоколу полагалось задать лидерам двух стран вьетнамским журналистам, был ими пожертвован на просьбу описать подробности этой встречи.

Однако социализм и здесь - с рыночным оттенком, и оттенок этот усиливается с каждым годом. Реформы начались здесь 15 лет назад, и вьетнамская экономика в отличие от нашей все это время росла. Реформы вытащили страну из голода, понастроили дорог, заводов (здесь собирают даже "Мерседесы" и "БМВ"), не говоря о гигантском экспорте обуви и о миллионах тонн кофе, фруктов и риса, по производству которого Вьетнам прочно держит второе место в мире. И на мировой рынок вьетнамцы могут повлиять довольно сильно. Чего стоит хотя бы не столь уж давняя история с паникой на Лондонской бирже, когда цены на кофе упали до рекордно низкой отметки из-за мощного давления на рынок со стороны Вьетнама. Это даже вынудило большинство стран - производителей кофе обратиться к вьетнамским фермерам с требованиями сократить объемы производства либо уничтожить часть своего урожая.

Реформы во Вьетнаме идут не так успешно, как в Китае, и проводят их не так решительно. Однако за десять лет, к 2000 году, ВВП Вьетнама увеличился более чем в два раза. Полностью ликвидирован товарный дефицит, уверенно растет экспорт - за десять лет в семь раз, достигнув к 2001 году 15 миллиардов долларов. Центр тяжести в структуре ВВП смещается от сельского хозяйства к промышленности - это значит, что Вьетнам медленно, но верно перестает быть аграрной страной.

В 1997 году азиатский финансовый кризис здорово потрепал экономику Вьетнама, которая едва успела окрепнуть. Однако страна уже оправилась от удара: начиная с 2000 года вьетнамская экономика динамично растет. Прямые иностранные инвестиции быстро набирают темп: сейчас во Вьетнаме насчитывается около 3 тысяч проектов с иностранным капиталом на общую сумму в 40 миллиардов долларов.

Однако и проблемы Вьетнама жестче, чем у Китая. Производство продолжается оставаться низкоэффективным: крупный бизнес во Вьетнаме все еще в большинстве случаев государственный. В стране образовано 94 крупные государственные корпорации, в которые входит более полутора тысяч предприятий, треть всех предприятий Вьетнама. Эти корпорации пользуются льготными условиями, предоставленными государством, однако в 2002 году доход этих компаний вырос всего на 30 процентов, а прибыли уменьшились на 40 процентов. Это говорит о крайней неэффективности промышленного сектора, который находится в ведении государства.

Беда в том, что по мнению экспертов, при огромном госсекторе в экономике во Вьетнаме отсуствует единое государственное регулирование производства, а правовая система слабо совместима с реальностью и слаба. Кроме того, большинство предприятий работают по устаревшей технологии, высоки затраты, сырье и полуфабрикаты на 80 процентов - импортные. К тому же идет жесткая конкуренция с китайскими производителями, а насколько просто конкурировать с Китаем, на себе почувствовала уже вся Азия. Бюджет Вьетнама дефицитен - около трети всей его доходной части и около 10 процентов ВВП. Это серьезная угроза экономике и понятно, что о продвижении социальных программ во Вьетнаме говорить очень и очень сложно.

Мир открывает Вьетнам

Но реформы во Вьетнаме продолжаются. За пятнадцать лет страна сделала огромный шаг вперед - фактически "проскочив" путь от феодализма к рыночной экономике и при этом умудрившись не потерять себя. Опыт экономических реформ в Китае и Вьетнаме показывает, что успеха можно добиться и успех обязательно будет, если здравая экономическая концепция опирается на стабильную общественную обстановку, если в стране не бьются конкурирующие политические кланы, если государственные институты сильны, законы действуют, а экономика страны открыта для внешнего мира. Эта задача решена в Китае, ее предстоит решить и Вьетнаму, где государство, присутствуя практически везде, не так крепко держит поводья управления экономикой, как в КНР.

Вьетнам, вслед за Китаем, постепенно открывается миру: это доказывают и визиты во Вьетнам президента США Буша в 2000 году, и президента России Путина в 2001-м, и вступление Вьетнама в АСЕАН. Существенно повысился уровень жизни людей: за пять лет доход на душу населения в месяц увеличился вдвое. Для разрушенной войной страны это очень неплохо. Учитывая, что во Вьетнаме пересекаются немало трансазиатских торговых трасс, будущее страны выглядит вполне оптимистично.

photo by Valerii Corcimari

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