To the first telecast in Republic of Moldova 50 years on April, 29th, 1958 will be executed. Scientific and technical progress in information transfers, and work of a considerable quantity of people and the organisations which have been involved in building of a television tower, installation of the new equipment have led to occurrence in Moldova a new kind of mass media.
To one of authors of this article, Ю. M.Sverkunovu, it was possible to participate in this project practically from the very beginning and to pass all steps of an office ladder - from the ordinary engineer to the director which he headed with 1975 for 1985. Other author, Т.И. Andros, within 18 years co-ordinated works on creation and TV operation on a post of the first deputy minister of communication, then the Minister of Communications of republic.
This huge project has begun in January, 1956 under the decision of directing bodies of republic on building in Kishinev the Television centre with end of the first stage by May, 1958. After that regular transfers of republican TV should begin. Building and Television centre operation were charged to the Ministry of Communications of republic which was headed at that time by A.H.Homenko, then, with 1961г. - I.G.Dobynde, with 1966 - V.P.Russu. Coordination of all works on building has been assigned to the deputy minister of communication A.G.Severinova. The management of building of the Television centre was headed by S.I.Kovtyshnyj.
At that time the republic had no neither the scientific organisations, nor the industry for manufacturing of the television equipment, the organisations on building of high-rise constructions. Therefore the project of the Kishinev Television centre has been included in plans of the corresponding scientific, design and industrial enterprises of the USSR - Moscow, Leningrad, Dnepropetrovsk: Considering very much deadlines of the Ministry of Communications and building have developed the plan which provided building in two stages. The first stage - a construction of transferring television station, a television tower in height of 180 m, garage from a boiler-house, electro-and water supply, 8 and 27-room apartment houses for employees. It has been decided to establish the process equipment of a hardware-studio complex in one of боксов garages. In the same boxing premises under studio and film projection have been adapted. Special difficulty was represented by building of a television tower as it was conducted in the limited territory where other works connected with a construction of the Television centre were made also. The second stage - building building is hardware - a studio complex and full installation of all engineering networks and communications. Works on a complete set of shots were simultaneously spent. Basically staff was formed at the expense of the qualified experts of the Radio centre. From its shops in a hardware-studio complex have been translated A.Botezat, N.Lagunova, G.Lazarkov, V.Marmaz; on transferring television station - A.Litinsky, L.Kostenko, A.Aleksandrov; on mobile television station - I.Burulev, D.Kibenko, K.Leonov, V.Kurilo, in film projection - experts from cinemas of Kishinev of I.Delinsky, A.Zheverdan.
For creation of television programs at the culture Ministry the division which was headed by A.I.Timush, nowadays the corresponding member of Academy of sciences has been generated. Later it was a part of Committee on TV and broadcasting at Ministerial council MSSR. Inhabitants of republic with the big attention watched a course of building of the Television centre. Very often there was here a management of republic and if there was a necessity, operatively assisted. The weekly newspaper "On Television centre building" was issued. In each number it was marked, how many days remain prior to the beginning of telecasts. Builders, workers of scientific research institute, engineering - technicians, assemblers, adjusters, future эксплуатационники with honour have carried out of the taken obligations. The first telecast on April, 29th, 1958 has gone on the air. It was a holiday!
However there were many problems, especially because of a temperature mode in time premises. The equipment overheated, acting in studio at times did not maintain strong heat. Studio ventilation was carried out only in pauses between transfers. But, despite these difficulties, telecasts have begun for three years earlier than if building was conducted only in one stage.
On termination of the first stage the enterprise has been renamed into the Republican Radio television centre of Ministry of Communications MSSR which chief had been appointed S.I.Kovtyshnyj, by the deputy chief on TV - B.E.Osmolovsky, the hardware-studio complex has headed A.A.Botezat transferring television station - A.I.Litinsky, mobile television station - Ю. M.Sverkunov, industrial laboratory - A.I.Nestula. The power and antenno-feeding devices were served by collective under the guidance of J.J.Uchitelja and I.S.Vozijan.
First time of transfer two times a week for 2-3 hours were conducted. Gradually their quantity and duration increased. From mobile television station translations from the areas, theatres, stadium were regularly conducted: Till 1963 spectators could watch only local transmissions as other sources of programs yet were not.
The second stage of building of the Television centre has been finished in 1961. In a building of a hardware-studio complex all conditions for maintenance of qualitative black-and-white telecasting have been created - it had two equipment rooms with film projection, studios 300 and 75м2, industrial premises for the technical personnel, directors, the editors acting.
Under the governmental order, in October, 1961 the hardware-studio complex and mobile television station has been televised in Committee and to broadcasting at Ministerial council MSSR. Duties were assigned To the Ministry of Communications and its jurisdictional enterprise - the Radio television centre on building of other television centres to provide transfer of TV schedules in all territory of Moldova.
Originally capacity of the television transmitter on 3rd frequency channel, established in 1958, made 15 kw, and inhabitants of the central part of republic in radius to 60-70км could accept telecasts, but also in this zone because of a difficult lay of land many settlements have appeared in so-called to "a shade zone" where reception of television programs was carried out with poor quality or in general was absent. For these settlements the next years the Radio television centre (now state enterprise "Radio communications") established low-power television repeaters.
Simultaneously the Ministry of Communications developed the General scheme of development многопрограмного a television announcement in republic. Considering complexity of this work, to it leaders of scientific research institute of Ministry of Communications of the USSR were involved. In 1963 the allied Ministry of Communications had been finished building of a radio relay line Kiev - Kishinev that has given the chance to accept the program of the Central TV from Moscow with high quality.
In 1964-66 powerful television repeaters in Beltsy and Кагул with heights of masts and towers of 150 and 132 metres accordingly have started to work. Experience on building, installation and operation of the Kishinev Television centre has been thus made use. At the same time in Kishinev reconstruction of industrial premises that has allowed to instal the powerful television transmitter for transfers of the second program has been made.
For transfer of television programs from Kishinev on operating and projected transferring television stations it was necessary to construct republican radio relay communication lines. For these purposes Ministry of Communications MSSR in 1966 had been created management of building of radio relay lines and cable highways. The chief of management had been appointed G.J.Beglits earlier working in one of shops of the Radio television centre.
With 1966 - for 1972 radio relay lines Kishinev - Комрат-Kagul and Beltsy - Единцы have been constructed. The same years powerful 2-program television stations in Единцах and Чимишлии with towers in height of 180 metres have been constructed. Building of radio relay lines and powerful television stations on modern (on those times) the equipment has allowed to transfer with high quality the colour image of the Central TV, and later - republican.
The concept about transfer of 4 television programs on all territory of republic in metre and decimeter wave bands has been in the mid-seventies developed. It was necessary to construct 9 transferring stations of the big capacity and a number of repeaters of low power. In 1976 building of television station in Унгены with installation of two television transmitters in a decimeter wave band and a mast in 235 metres has been finished. Then multiprogramme television transferring stations in Страшенах (a mast 350м), by N.Myndreshtah (a mast of 350 m.), Трифештах (Rubber, a mast of 235 m.) have been constructed Full reconstruction of Kagulsky television station (a mast 235м), reconstruction of radio relay lines Kishinev - Комрат - Кагул and Beltsy - Единцы is made, and the Kaushansky television station is started up in operation in 1992. Commissioning of these stations and a considerable quantity of low-power television repeaters has provided possibility of reception of one program practically on 97 % of territory of the republic, two programs - more than 90 % and three programs - more than 85 % of territory.
After 1992 the state enterprise "Radio communications" (general director V.M.Bodulesku) spends work on operative equipment modernisation, installation of microrepeaters for "shadow zones" and preparation of the equipment for transition to digital TV.
Now possibilities of transfer of television programs have increased many times over. Except traditional ways of transfer of images, there was a possibility of transfer of hundreds and thousand programs on optical cables with use of various types of channels and various reports, including Internet reports, with use of artificial companions of the Earth etc. Would be the big error not to use these possibilities.
We wish the colleagues now working in the field of transfer of television programs, good knowledge and aspirations to perfection! And to veterans of TV - kind health and long years of a life.
Timothy Andros, a Dr.Sci.Tech., the senior lecturer,
Photo: Valery Korchmar.