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Wreaths, forelocks and wide trousers. With what at me the image of the Ukrainian associates? The laugher. The dark-browed beauty with cheerful shining eyes, a flush and fast speech, in a wreath and a bright skirt. And the Ukrainian - the broad-shouldered
2008/07/16
Wreaths, forelocks and wide trousers. With what at me the image of the Ukrainian associates? The laugher. The dark-browed beauty with cheerful shining eyes, a flush and fast speech, in a wreath and a bright skirt. And the Ukrainian - the broad-shouldered man in the wide trousers, the embroidered shirt, a straw hat and is dashing tightened up moustaches. And all together is a hopak, fast, unusual speech for Russian ear, inexpressible intonations, the, especial humour and colour. Probably, creation of an image was much promoted by the Soviet cinema - big to it thanks. In any case, from all slavic people Ukrainians are represented by the brightest, cheerful and remembered. And originality of these people perfectly transfers a national suit.

The slavic people many details of the suits took from the ancestors - Scythian tribes. Both in man's, and in lady's wear one of basic elements is the shirt. Female shirts were sewed by length to an ankle. At a throat and on a bottom of sleeves gathered pleated, were decorated by an embroidery. Usually the shirt consisted of two parts, and the bottom part was sewed from more rough matter. Till a marriage of the girl carried подпоясанные shirts, and only after wedding put on поневу - the progenitress of a modern skirt. Понева consisted of two, and sometimes and three panels strengthened by a zone thong. In front floors dispersed, in other villages even it was fashionable to sew to them laces with which help the skirt bottom fastened to a belt, opening a shirt or one more panel поневы. Daily поневы were dark colours, and here the celebratory variant pleased with abundance of paints.
Селянки used fabrics of own manufacturing - the weaver's industry till XVIII century was неразвита. Basically weaved flax and a wool. Though at city fairs it was possible to buy silk, a velvet, brocade. At that time these fabrics brought from Byzantium, Iran, China. Naturally, the prices "bit". And even well-founded peasants if bought such luxury, only for furnish of a celebratory suit. Therefore the embroidery was the basic ornament of a suit, and at the same time оберегом and an indicator of the social status, both in a female suit, and in man's.
Probably, the wreath was the main feature of the maiden suit. It did of colours, present or artificial. Behind intertwined with multi-coloured tapes. The wreath served оберегом to honour and innocence of the girl, and warm summer nights young Ukrainians started up the wreaths on a stream. Whose will come to the specified place more likely, that the first and in marriage leaves.

Women closed hair очипком - a soft hat, and on holidays and in church over it put on the long towel which ends hanged down along a back.
Men in a course had wide trousers - the main difference from suits of other slavic people. Between trouser-legs did a rectangular insert, the original bag was as a result formed. As support wide trousers were served by a lace or a belt. Unlike Russian and Byelorussians, Ukrainians filled shirts in trousers. As well as female, man's shirts were decorated by an embroidery. It had been decorated both a collar, and sleeves, and even shoulders.
As well as in days of the Kiev Russia, peasants in XIV-XVII century of century put leather постолы or wattled bast shoes (лычаки). Richer carried boots and boots. Celebratory boots did of two-coloured morocco thanks to what they were called чернобpывцы.
But the belt was the most important part of a suit nevertheless. Belts carried necessarily: to go without a belt was considered as the indecent. Except опояски on a shirt carried wide belts (belts) on outer clothing and sported them who as could. At rather poor people of a belt were дорогильные and тафтяные; at rich they became from expensive matters and were decorated by values. Belts were striped (for example white with brown and cherry strips serially or azure, brown and cherry strips with gold), and in each strip original patterns settled down: snakes, birds, шильца and т.п. Belts decorated gold and silver metal plates (raincoats) of the round, extended, quadrangular or polygonal form with dredging on corners; between metal plates imposed other metal ornaments - переченки. On metal ornaments minted different figures, animals, birds, horsemen. To belts attached hooks by which they and were clasped. It is possible to judge the size of belts to that one boyar in XVII century had a belt in length of five arshin and five vershoks and in the width six vershoks is almost 4 metres of length and 26 sm of width!

Suits of city dwellers of that time surprised with variety of paints. Was considered, that the more important and richer the person, the more brightly he should be dressed. Black and in general dark colours used only for sad (mourning) or so-called quiet (plaintive) dresses. On representations of that time bright colours have caused respect and consequently tsars and princes ordered to officials in solemn occasions if it was necessary to influence the people, to appear in florid clothes. Служилые people during solemn events also dressed "colour dresses".
Colours were various, but prevailed red with many shades. Even ecclesiastics carried cassocks of red colours. In a course were azure, green, cherry, lemon, red etc. Dear imported fabrics have been weaved by gold threads. "The gold dress" was considered as attribute of advantage of boyars and думных people who surrounded the tsar. When accepted ambassadors that who had no such clothes, it gave out temporarily, from imperial treasury.
Special value of men's wear was expressed in stripes, wrists, a lace, buttons. Stripes did always of a matter which are sharply distinct from a face sheet of all clothes: for example, on green cloth of a stripe were red. Under colour of stripes selected outsets and brushes. Stripes and wrists at the rich were covered with pearls, jewels, sheathed by gold buttons. At poor buttons were from silk or a yarn. Buttons sometimes did of pearls; at some dandies each button represented one big pearl. Poor men carried tin buttons of such precisely forms, as rich; button times reached the sizes of egg. There were them more often eleven or twelve, sometimes fourteen-fifteen.
It is difficult even to present, it was how much heavy to carry all it is beauty to its owners.
Telling about the Ukrainian suit, it is necessary to mention a unique fashion on hairdresses. The well-known Ukrainian forelocks were known worldwide - the original card малороссов. Cossacks especially differed. In 1870 запорожец Ivan Rozsoloda here so described Cossack hairdresses: " Went запорожцы well, put on elegantly and beautifully; they shaved heads: обреют and still with soap will smear (that the best hair grew). One only чуприну left length about arshin, black and curly. Will refuel, will roll up two-three times for the left ear and will hang up, and it and hangs to the shoulder. And another takes and will tie up the чуприну a tape, will twirl it on a forehead and will lay down to sleep, and will dismiss it in the morning, and it becomes, precisely sheep tail. It is all on выхвалку (for boasting). Girls of a plait let grow, запорожцы чуприны. And if already too long will grow, then the Cossack will roll up it at first for the left ear, and then will spend behind a nape on the right ear and and goes. Beards too shaved, only one moustaches left and raised them longer. The Cossack takes both of them hands, will lift upwards, and will put in pawn on the ears, and they even more low ears hung. Here it as запорожец чуприну has rolled up, moustaches has combed - then already puts on in the dress ".
The well-known Ukrainian forelocks and moustaches are known till now worldwide - the original card малороссов.
 
Nadejda Degtiareva,
photo by Valerii Corcimari

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