Research of the doctor of history of Sergey Suljaka about Alexey Matveeviche (a literary pseudonym - Mateeviche). On its verses in 1994 the Republic of Moldova hymn "Limba noastra" - "Our language" has been written. Doctor Sergey Suljak writes about past and present communication and about many other things. For the first time Alexey Matveevich (a literary pseudonym - Матеевич) has appeared in print in 1906 In the newspaper «Басарабия» under A.Mihailesku's pseudonym there was its article «Problem of priests». In it it is told about unscrpulous fuss round arrival to village Zaim, for possession which after death of father Matveevicha priests of the next villages began to struggle.
The same year Матеевич has published a sketch from бессарабской lives "Autumn", articles «That is necessary for us?» And «Struggle of Moldavians for the rights». Supporting the national and social rights of Moldavians, he saw their development precisely within the limits of the multinational Russian state. On pages of this newspaper first works Матеевича on ethnography («Wedding ceremonies at бессарабских Moldavians», «Christmas коляды», «Sacred Vasily - New year in customs бессарабских Moldavians»), transfer of three stories of A.P.Chekhov were issued. In 1907 debut Матеевича as the poet has taken place. In «Басарабии» there was its first poem «Дорул» ("Desire") behind the signature «Is scarlet. М».
In 1910 Матеевич has finished the Kishinev theological seminary: from 30 estimations at it was only six «четверок». In other subjects there were excellent estimations. It became the present polyglot: except Moldavian, Russian and Church Slavonic, he owned Greek, Latin, French and German languages, in the Kiev spiritual academy has studied English and Hebrew.
Having arrived same year in the Kiev spiritual academy, he continues to write and be engaged in transfers. It publishes on Moldavian poems and articles of the religious-moral maintenance in church magazine "Луминэторул" ("Educator"). The important place in creativity Матеевича is occupied with popularisation of Russian culture. It translates into the Moldavian language of product of Russian classics G.A.Derzhavin, A.S.Pushkin, M.J.Lermontov, A.K.Tolstoy, F.I.Tyutchev.
In 1910 behind the signature It is scarlet. Матвеевич it publishes in magazine «Kishinev diocesan sheets» article «the Moments of church influence in an origin and historical development of the Moldavian language». A.Mateevich writes about influence of Church Slavonic language on development of the Moldavian language. He underlines, that «… present Romanians lost language of the ancestors and the church from any foreign influences and internal разъединенности whereas бессарабские Moldavians, having rallied under cover of church, zealously preserved its language as the national relic. Joining of Bessarabia to Russia has appeared the saving certificate both for the Moldavian language, and for the Moldavian divine service». Bessarabsky Moldavians «have kept language of the ancestors which long since was also their church language. In this language, slavic letters, write ancient Moldavian chronicles, - reading and writing and decrees Moldavian господарей».
Speaking about centuries-old Moldavian-slavic communications, Матеевич mentions, that attacks of nomads have forced Slavs and East Romance population to recede in Carpathians, «having forced these two tribes some time to live together». «When danger passed, both people have descended from Carpathians and began to lodge together within present Romania, Transylvania and Bessarabia. It slavic names of many districts in Moldova and Bessarabia on a level with Moldavian» speak, by the way.
In 1911 in this magazine there are its works: «the Moldavian funeral lamentations», «Religious motives in поверьях and ceremonies бессарабских Moldavians». The next years here are published «Think of L.N.Tolstoy about religion and their estimation», «the Sketch of the Moldavian religious-household traditions» (1912), «the Moldavian celebratings from Easter to Пятидесятницы» (1913), «Christianity in Bessarabia» (1913-1915), «the Moldavian tserkovno-divine service publishing in the basic moments of its history», «New year at Moldavians» (1915).
He writes articles «When and how there were Christians Moldavians?» (1912), «our church publishing», «Metropolitan Gabriel (Banulesko-Bodoni), the founder and the organizer of the Kishinev and Hotinsky dioceses» (1913), published in magazine "Луминэторул".
A.Mateevicha's ethnographic articles in magazine «Kishinev diocesan sheets» are continuation of its research work which it has begun earlier. A.Mateevicha's works ценны that the researcher not only has in detail described a number of customs, ceremonies, beliefs of Moldavians, compared to traditions, customs, суеверями other people and tried to explain their origin.
In work «the Moldavian celebratings from Easter to Пятидесятницы», describing «Easter blissful» («Paştili blăjinilor», Russian радуница, "prowaters"), marked on Monday on Фоминой to week, he tries to give an explanation of this ancient custom to decipher concept "blissful" or «рахман».
Having mentioned, that in the ethnographic literature the question about «рахманах is insufficiently studied and that бессарбские Moldavians never name« рахманов »« рахманами », A.Mateevich writes, that given поверье exists and at other people,« first of all at русинов Bessarabia and Bukovina, and also at буковинских Huzuls who name Moldavian "blissful" «рахманами». Also given поверье under a little bit other name («рагмань», «рохмань», «рогмань») there is at буковинских Moldavians, Romanian Maramuresha and Nasaudsky district in Transylvania. Same поверье exists villages of Galicia.
The word «рахман» is mentioned in «the Dictionary of ancient slavic language составленнонго on Остромирову to the gospel, F.Mikloshichu, A.H.Vostokov, J.I.Berednikovu and I.S.Kochetovu» A.V.Starchevsky published in St.-Petersburg in 1899 However, there value of this word connect with «браминами». This version of an origin of a word «рахман», as well as others (from the Arabian word «рахман» - mercy, that «рогмань» - «romani», Romans), has been analysed by A.Mateevichem. The researcher concludes, that attempts to explain an origin of the given word «further guesses have gone, and« рахманы »and remained shrouded дымкой mystery, mysteriousness and mysticism».
In work «New year at Moldavians» A.Mateevich, resulting texts of the most widespread коляд, mentions, that in some cases «бадя Васыли» (in transfer Матеевича - «senior brother Vasily») which, according to the researcher, associates with Sacred Vasily, is replaced «бадикой Трояном» ("big brother Trojanom"). Having specified, that is pagan echoes, and that at Moldavians even the Milky Way is called "road Trojana" (calea lui Troian), Матеевич the opinion expresses, that Троян has got in New Year's колядку as «the person personifying supernatural, inhuman force of the farmer».
In a number of works (in particular, in articles «Religious motives in поверьях and ceremonies бессарабских Moldavians», «the Sketch of the Moldavian it is religious-bytovyh traditions», «the Moldavian celebratings from Easter to Пятидесятницы») A.Mateevich describes one of pagan vestiges «Русалии». All the Thursdays long between Easter and Пятидесятницей Moldavians name «русалиевскими». «" Русалии "- mythical beings of a female which in" русалиевский "the period rush by air and threaten the orthodox Christian with any misfortunes». These days, on поверью, it is impossible to work.
In 1914, on a last year of the Kiev spiritual academy of A.Mateevich protects the master's thesis on a theme «religious-philosophical world view Фехнера». Same year he marries Feodosiya Борисовне Novitsky, daughters of the priest from with. Джуринцы the Kiev province. After academy Mateevich termination works as the teacher of the Greek language in the Kishinev seminary (1914-1915). In 1915 it becomes a member of the Bessarabsky church istoriko-archaeological society.
On September, 11th, 1915 A.Mateevich has been mobilised as the military priest and sent on Galitsijsky front. In March, 1915 it publishes in magazine "Луминэторул" a material under the name «Atrocity of Germans» (with a mark "translation from Russian"). This material - the reduced transfer into the Moldavian language of newspaper materials of the collection «Black Book of the German atrocities». Матеевич used two sections of the collection: «Stirred up by Germans» and «Rainy days of Kalisz, Ченстохова, Андреева and Вержболова» in which were described cruelty, lawlessness, marauding of German armies in the grasped Russian territories. The translator has made essential additions in the text, comparing behaviour of Germans with atrocities a Turk during war 1877-1878.
With opening in the end of 1916 of the Romanian front Mateevich has been directed as a part of the part from Galichina to Romania. It carried out the duties is exemplary, for what in the end of 1916 has been awarded St. Anna's by award of 3rd degree.
February revolution of 1917 Матеевич has met with inconsistent feeling. As he in the letter writes to the wife on March, 12th, 1917: «February days at us in army have passed smoothly … In army at us has changed nothing. All goes still. Determination if to defend not reigning the native land, in soldiers it is strong. They are ready to battle, in what it would not become, and on what inside would not argue. I know, that an event here - too a victory over the German - only over the German internal. Separate persons address for an explanation of a question on the oath which is authorised in the sense that the oath remains to the native land and belief firm, and the oath I reign by itself has passed to Верховнокомандующему …». And further: « I should personally rejoice so easily and to without blood made revolution, but I am afraid, first, of reaction without which there did not pass any known revolution in history, and secondly - возобладания in Provisional government and the future Constituent assembly of extreme elements which can impose us republic. After all … щирые Ukrainians … already acted with the requirement of the United States of Ukraine and others благоглупостями ». Disturbed him and haste of"reform"in army:« As though together with a heritage of an old mode not to undermine and moral bases of army which after all are created not yesterday and not Гучковыми, cancelling them with the stroke of the pen ».
In June, 1917 Матеевич writes a poem «Our language». For the first time it has been read by the author on June, 18th in Kishinev at congress of teachers-Moldavians of Bessarabia. The poem has been printed in the newspaper «Кувынт молдовенеск» on June, 21st, and on August, 29th - in запрутской to the newspaper «Neamul Romănesc». This poem - a hymn to native Moldavian language. By tradition it each new edition of products of the poet opens. In 30th years of XX century composer A.Kristja has shifted a poem on music.
Continuing traditions of the Moldavian writers-traditsionalistov of XIX century, Матеевич in the products opposes reformers of the Moldavian language, against it латинизации, for preservation by centuries of the taken roots slavic words. In an operating time of congress of teachers-Moldavians when one of orators has supported introduction in Bessarabia the Latin alphabet and has declared, that it is possible to count thus on the help of Romania, Матеевич parried: «Bessarabia has the intelligency and does not require the help of Romania».
In a poem to "Other language and literature teachers» («Унора»), written by it on July, 13-14th, 1917 at the front, in карпатском village Meresheshty, the poet gives the rebuff so-called «латинизаторам» which under the pretext of "enrichment" and "updating" of the Moldavian language violently included in it words of a Latin origin, expelling славянизмы. In the poem he notices, that:
«The Moldavian free dialect, language that is given forever,
Becomes Latin in цирюльничьих lips,
But your roses as a medicine from a drugstore smell,
After all your roses are made of pink papers ».
At the front Матеевич has caught a typhus and has been hospitalised in 1st Kishinev hospital where has died on August, 13th, 1917.