National dance, the most ancient kind of national creativity in Republic of Moldova. Through dance we observe typical lines named «the Moldavian national character». The movement organisation in time and space, plastic, rhythmics in execution of national dances reflect figurativeness of art thinking which the Moldavian people love and appreciates.
To number of the most widespread dances belongs chorus (Bulgarian «хорo», from Greek «choros»). In the beginning of XIX century хорой named not only a concrete kind of dance, but also original national festival, a walk. Now in the majority of areas of republic хорой circular dance in which dancing keep for hands is called. Rate of dance - moderated. In chorus there is no certain end, its duration depends on an ingenuity dancing, there is a set of variants of this dance. Chorus can be called in a place of its creation - «Chorus де Бэлць» («Beltsky chorus»), on the character or event in which honour it is executed - «Chorus миресей» («Chorus of the bride»), «Chorus Иленуцей» («Chorus Иленуцы»), «Chorus нунций» («Wedding chorus») etc. Sometimes a "chorus" word falls also dance is called simply «Нунтяска» ("Wedding"), «Флоричика» ("Floret") etc. In the middle of XIX century on change to concept of "chorus" of him the general sense the concept «жок» comes.
In informal conversation instead of occurring earlier «find fault ла хорэ» (we go on chorus) it is even more often used «find fault ла жок». The word «жок» has occurred from Latin «jocus» (game, an entertainment). The term is often used by the second word, for example, «Жок бэтрынеск» («Ancient dance»), «Жок де глумэ» («Comic dance»). In wide value жок - national гуляние which by tradition occurred in each village on a certain place - on the area, in the field, at a mill etc. Жок the group of guys arranged. They collected money and employed musicians. In holidays жок usually lasted since morning till the late evening. To the travellers visiting Moldova at various times, жок reminded original rural ball. Quite often жок began the general dance of type choruses, and in each area and even village, dances were executed, unique on style and a manner. Widely былои are extended «Сырба», «Булгэряска», «Русяска», «Арменяска», «Цыгэняска». In due time these dances have been borrowed Serbs, Bulgarians, Russian, Armenians, gipsies. But having adopted separate elements and rates of dances of other people, Moldavians executed them in own way. One of the mentioned people does not have similar dances and if meet are called as Moldavian.
Special impression make on жоке man's dances. Since XIX century, in the Moldavian choreography there are no almost dances the weapon in hands. However «Бэтута», «Войничяска» («Dance of athletes»), «Хайдучяска» («Dance гайдуков»), «Арнэутул» («Dance арнаутов») vigorous movements, the courage, inherited from the ancient aggressive dancings reflecting centuries-old struggle of Moldavians for freedom are peculiar to dances. Memory about гайдуках is live and today in national songs, ballads, dances. Modern «хайдучяскам» on the vigorous character there correspond man's dances of type «Брыул» ("Corbel") and «Бэтута». Usually in these courageous emotional dancings glorifying military friendship and demanding special dexterity and skill, the best dancers of village take part. Such dances differ difficult rhythmic drawings and combinations of movements, the frequent syncopated blows of feet about the earth.
Dances are headed quite often by the leader. Their participants движутся more often on a circle, on a direct or zigzag line (in the form of a twisted corbel), hold each other for belts, shoulders or brushes of hands. Dance, as a rule is accompanied by whooping (киуитурь) and своеобразнымси comic or satirical poetic improvisations (стригэтурь).
The Moldavian national dances inseparably linked with music. Usually they are executed accompanied by an orchestra (тарафа), consisting of violins, cymbals, флуера and other tools. In olden time many dances were accompanied by singing («Мититика», «Иленуца»).
The Moldavian national dances are divided on the functional importance in a public life on ceremonial and household. Among the most known - ceremonial dances «Кэлушарий», «Дрэгайка», wedding - «Остропецул», «Зестря», ("Given"), Дансул миресей («Dance of the bride»). Household in turn, are subdivided into dances in which there is no strongly pronounced plot but in which with the greatest force emotional energy of the people - "Chorus" was expressed, «Сырба», «Молдовеняска», «Бэтута», «Брыул». «Булгэряска», «Ынвыртита» («Dance with rotations»), «Русяска», «Трей лемне» («Three logs»), etc. - and dances in which any concrete action is expressed.
Comparative stability of drawing of the Moldavian dances allows to divide them into four basic groups, type choruses - circular dances in which dancing hold each other for brushes of hands or shoulders: type брыул - the basic drawing - the line or a semicircle, dancing hold each other for belts and shoulders, type ынвыртиты - is executed by steams or small groups (the young man and two girls, or on the contrary); dances of the mixed type to which drawings of three previous groups are peculiar.
To structurally-rhythmic signs the Moldavian dances basically also share on four groups: type сырбы, betuty-choruses, остропец, choruses-mare.
On the basis of folklore dance scenic variants of national dances which are executed by professional collectives are created. Best of them are included into gold fund of a national choreography.