The police history, domnia, dregetoirile, in Republic of Moldova totals council of wise men and old men about 600 years. The system many times changed, but the problem was invariable - maintenance of a public order and property protection. In the Moldavian feudalism the public order, safety of the state and people, property protection have been entrusted not only to the central public institutions, but also local: domnia, dregetoirile, council of wise men and old men, etc.
Domnia it is itself the higher institute of the power which defined directions, forms and restrictions of activity of police. King of Moldova it was protected шолтузами, in a consequence фусташами and арнэутами. At night, cities were protected стражникаами, and roads - кэлэрашами (horsemen).
Dregotories as establishments which served as intermediaries in процесе managements of a sovereign of the country, had a role of investigation and authorisation of criminals. It is known, that most the higher дрегэтория which had policemen обязаности, was Мареле Ворник, for the first time подтвержденая documentary on November, 13th 1393. With this activity to it helped ворники and глобники.
Since 16 centuries, in Moldova the chief of police was Мареле Хатман (the Great Hetman), ”main over all armies” public order maintenance was which duty also. The first mention of it concerns 1541, in Peter Raresha's board. In a peace time a part of soldiers were used as palace protection of the Hetman or carried out duties on maintenance of an internal order. The hetman was responsible for a public order in all territory of the country, for investigation, an establishment and jail placement of criminals.
It is established, that till 17 century Moldova had no the police organisation as that, similar that were in the European countries. Protection of people and the material benefits belonging to them, and also public order and calmness maintenance, have been entrusted heads of armies.
Protection and police functions in capital have been assigned on агу which post has been based in 1592 later. Aha carried out the control over observance of measures of punishment and punished infringers of its orders. Aha was responsible for an order of economy and streets and contained special prison and court. Into its duties entered as well condemnation of dealers for small faults and punishment of those who broke rest of a city. Aha, in a consequence, became the prefect of a city.
Since 18 centuries of a duty of police character of the Great Hetman have considerably extended. Into them entered also: the certification of the person and throughput on road, suppression of fires, конвоирование condemned to places of execution of punishment, etc.
After annexation of Bessarabia in 1812 Russian Empire and during the initial period of an autonomy in the organisation of police structure, since 1873, completely establishes system империальной polices. Since November, 1917 in Democratic Republic Moldova the Internal Management has started to operate.
In 1918 - 1940, the police of Kishinev operates under the guidance of the prefect of police, and in other cities and districts - under the guidance of city and district prefects. Acceptance 21.07.29 Laws on the organisation of general police of the State, has led to radical changes in police activity. It provided creation administrative and a criminal police, and also service of the information, were components of Central administrative board of police as a part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Since 1940, from creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, the new system of the public institutions which problem is public order and calmness maintenance is based. On August, 8th 1940, the order of a national commissariat of internal affairs of the USSR had been formed the National Commissariat of Internal affairs МССР. The first commissioner of internal affairs had been named N.Sazykin.
The organizational structure of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs MSSR had two levels: central office, on the one hand, and managements, departments and services, on the other hand. Among the basic components of system of the law-enforcement bodies created in 1940, there was also a Management of Workers' and Peasants' militia, Department пенитенциарных establishments, Department of fire service, archive Department, Service of state security and boundary protection. On the basis of the order from August, 8th, 1940, 6 district departments of bodies of internal security and 14 regional departments on a left bank of Dnestr have been created.
For this period bodies of maintenance of safety of the state and public order maintenance were in one general commissariat - the National Commissariat of Internal affairs. In February, 1941 the agencies of state security to separate from People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs and form the National Commissariat of State security (НКГБ).
After war, on March, 26th, 1946, it agree the Decree of Presidium of Supreme body МРСС, the National Commissariat of internal affairs was renamed into the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the name which has kept till now.
The establishment on October, 25th, 1956 a principle of a double subordination to the bodies, authorised to apply the law - the local public power, on the one hand, and to central office of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, with another was one of the main events in evolution of law-enforcement bodies. City both regional managements and departments of the Ministry of Internal Affairs were преобразованны in law-enforcement bodies of local authorities.
In the sixtieth years the system of law-enforcement bodies many times was exposed to reorganisation. On July, 26th, 1966 the Ministry of protection of public order МССР has been formed. Later, in November, 1968, have returned to the old name - the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
The great value, in reorganisation of activity of bodies of internal security had acceptance on July, 19th, 1973 the Law “About the main rights and duties of the Soviet militia for maintenance of a public order and struggle against criminality” and new Position about the Soviet militia.
Among the basic components of the Ministry of Internal Affairs were: administrative service, criminal investigation department, department on struggle against plunder of the socialist property and gamble (ОБХСС), department of passports and visas, the state car inspection, fire service, management of correctional labour institutions.
After the declaration on June, 23rd, 1990 the Republic Moldova sovereignty, the new legal status, structure and duties of law enforcement bodies has been established and process of formation own - national system of law-enforcement bodies has begun.
On September, 13th, 1990 the Republic Moldova Government has accepted the Decision № 321 «About reorganisation of bodies of Ministry of Internal Affairs MSSR» by which creation of Department of police and regional departments of police was provided. So, the new law-enforcement body - Police has started to occupy a militia place. On December, 18th, 1990 the Parliament of Republic Moldova has passed the Law on Police.
Process of structural reforming of law-enforcement bodies proceeded and in a current of last years. Now the Republic Moldova Police represents the armed law enforcement body of the public power called on the basis of strict cоблюдения of laws to protect a life, health, the rights and freedom of citizens, interests of a society and the state from criminal and other illegal encroachments, and is a component of the Ministry of Internal Affairs