The first photo in the world, on hearings, has appeared in the thirties 19th centuries. Ways of fastening of light images then were fashionable. Tens people independently from each other worked in this direction. And here - long-awaited has come true. The message about the invention was fantastic. And now there is some history.
This event was preceded by searches of many inquisitive people within centuries. Present researchers carry chamber-obskury occurrence to the beginning of our millenium. In the end of XV century has described the device of the chamber-obskury of Leonardo da Vinci. Improved this device other well-known Italian Dzhiovani of Lawn делла Port in the middle of XVI century. Travellers, architects, artists used the Chamber-obskuroj, and subsequently the road chamber-ljutsidoj.
Searched for means of fastening of light images. In 1725 the young Russian diplomat, the chemist-fan, future chancellor Alexey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin has made remarkable supervision: solutions of salts of iron changed colour under the influence of a sunlight. After two years essential experiences over silver salts were spent by German scientist Johann Henry Schultz. On a powder containing nitrate silver, it imposed the cut out letters and exposed a powder with such cliche on light, after a while cleaned a cliche. On a powder there was a distinct inscription. Using the term of our days, it there was the first photogram - the light image. But "drawings" quickly disappeared on light.
Solving successes in the photo invention legally connect with three names: Frenchmen Ньепса and Дагера and Englishman Talbota.
Жозеф Нисефор Ньепс (1765 - 1833) has not lived to a celebration of the long-term experiences. Till now his name remains sometimes in a shade. However it should give the first tribute of gratitude. In 1816 it conducted "гелиографические" works.
Нисефор Ньепс was engaged in inventions, the requirement in which was put forward by a practical life. He searched for a way of reproduction of drawings, similarly shortly before that the appeared lithograph. In 1826 by means of light beams it has received an engraving copy, having begun that репродуционной to the technician.
In the same 1826 Ньепс has directed from a window of a workshop the chamber-obskuru on roofs of the next structures and has received, though also vague, but the fixed light drawing (1). So the second, great calling of the invention has come to light.
Priority Нисефора Ньепса was convincingly confirmed with the documents published already in our century. In 1949 the Academy of sciences of the USSR has published under T.Kravtsa's edition correspondence Ньепса with Дагером, correspondence Дагера with successor Nepsa Isidorom Nepsom, letters of other persons, concerning histories of the invention of a photo. These documents have been transferred in due time by successors Ньепса to the Russian scientist И.X. Гамелю. Almost a century they have lain in archive and were issued only by century of a photo. In these interesting documents attractive lines of the person and inventor Nisefora Nepsa appear.
Lui Jacque Mande Dager (1787 1851) was the artist, has become famous for the Parisian diopama created together with artist Charles Butonom. Дагер showed to public impressing light pictures. For example, "Dense wood at different o'clock in the afternoon", "Eruption of Vesuvius", "Napoleon's Tomb on St. Elena's island". The diopama consisted of the pictures sometimes constructed in several plans. Images have been drawn on either side of a cloth and alternately shined in front and behind. It admired spectators: as if on magic one picture replaced another.
Dreaming to expand possibility иллюзионизма, the gifted artist the light image in the chamber-obskure. It enters contractual relations with Нисефором Ньепсом, and they in common search for more perfect design of the device and a chemical way of processing of a photosensitive material. But Ньепс soon dies. Дагер one brings practical base under experiences Ньепса. On April, 28th, 1838 he declares: "I have christened my process so:"дагеротип". Opening Дагер submits to consideration to the secretary of the Parisian academy of sciences Dominica Francois Arago. On January, 7th, 1839 Араго has reported on academy on the invention of artist Dagera" by means of a light beam to receive the strong image on a silver plate in the chamber-obskure ". This day has become history as photo birthday.
Inconceivable it has appeared accessible: sun light became the obedient draughtsman (2, 3). The person only directs solar beams through collective convex glasses to the dark chamber, and they - without a brush and a pencil - represent a city kind, rural road, an engraving or sculpture product on a metal plate.
The academy of sciences has approvingly accepted news about this opening. In the Chamber of Deputies the offer has been made: to promulgate the invention and to grant the state pension to Lui Jacque Dageru and successors of the partner under invention Жозефа Нисефора Ньепса. In chamber of peers known physicist Zhozef Lui the Gay-Ljussak eulogised opening.
Both chambers have confirmed pension Дагеру and to successors Ньепса. In August, 1839 the way named дагеротипией, has been promulgated for general data. Same year Englishman William Henry Foke Talbot (1800-1877) declared the way of fastening of the images received in the chamber-obskure. However, searches of a way of fastening of light drawing in life Тальбота did not take so exclusive place, as at the inventor on nature Ньепса or at artist Dagera fanatically carried away by this idea.
Фоке Тальбот was the versatile Scientist. He is an author of works on матестике. Going to travel, the scientist took е itself the chamber-obskuru, used it. "By consideration of the charming image in the chamber-obskure to me the thought that it would be desirable to keep if not its colours then light and a shade", - wrote Тальбот subsequently often came. The scientist was thoroughly familiar with all experiences of inventors of the previous time searching for ways of fastening of "solar" drawing. Consulted in a number of the researches on well-known physicist John Frederikom Gershelem whom as the scientist the nature of a solar beam interested.
Even in the summer of 1835 Тальбот with half-hour endurance has made pictures of the summer residence. This building "the first has drawn itself" - he has informed ("the Photographic bulletin", 1889).
But the kind from a workshop window on the neighbour's roofs, executed Ньепсом nine years was the first светописным the image made on nature, all the same earlier. Дагер knowingly hastened with the child. Фоке Тальбот, having learnt in January, 1839 about D.F.Arago's made in the Parisian academy of sciences the message, there and then has presented the statement for the way of fastening of the light image to the London Royal society. Data on a way of the English inventor have been promulgated by English scientific magazine.
After almost one and a half centuries, at present вездесущности photos - in art, a science, the technician, in mass media, - we will recollect early ways of reception fixed "light drawings". In their rivalry the destiny of an early photo is reflected.
Process дагеротипии looked so. The polished silver plate treated in darkness to action of steams of iodine. On it there was a touch of iodide silver. A plate placed in the chamber-obskuru, opened an objective. Under the influence of the solar beams reflected by photographed subjects, in a layer of iodide silver image hardly appreciable by an eye turned out. A plate took out from the chamber and processed too in darkness mercury steams. In the places treated to action of silver. In the same places which light did not influence, галогениды silver deleted a table salt solution, later - hyposulphite. Thus the image was fixed. Places on which beams of this or that intensity operated, considerably differed on tone from plate places on which light at all did not operate.
The way of the English inventor was other. Фоке Тальбот - the scientist with artist's propensity - named the invention "калотипией", from the Greek word "калос" - beauty. The image turned out in the chamber-obskure on a paper impregnated with a photosensitive solution. A paper plate showed, then fixed. It was a negative. From a paper negative printed the positive image on a sensitised paper (4, 5).
Калотипия has begun bases of a photo what we it know today.
The material is taken from Sergey Morozova's book "Creative photo"