The Moldavian phenomenon - the Russian magazine of gross national product about Republic Moldova and the policy spent by the country leaders.
The republic Moldova deprived of any bright strategic advantages, before recent time took rather modest place. Unlike the nearest neighbours of Romania and Ukraine, Moldova remained in a shade of the European political events. But the situation varies before our eyes. On an eastern frontier of the European union there was absolutely new modern country.
I have returned from Moldova with the mixed feelings. Though flied to Kishinev, feeling prepared enough for writing about this country.
The day before has fairly learnt simple surnames of leaders of local political parties, has looked statistics, has made to itself the small inquiry on dynamics of the Russian-Moldavian relations, besides in Kishinev I already happened before - and during Soviet times, and in the mid-nineties. Eventually all after all and so it is clear: well the poor country, economy any, has produced гастарбайтеров.
The reality has taken me unawares. Absolutely near to Russia, on an eastern frontier of the European union, there was absolutely new country. It is possible to name it the country-paradox, it is possible to name the country-innovator. Somehow: In any case all last years in this former Soviet republic there is something such, that is not entered in one of receptions known to me or recipes of reforming of a society, economy, the government. In this country there is that, on idea, cannot simply occur.
Not taken place "Аншлюс".
Absolutely near to Russia, on an eastern frontier of the European Union, there was absolutely new country - Moldova.
Still eight years ago, by a recognition of local experts, from Moldova there should be only one memoirs. In the European part of the former USSR there was no similar picture on dramatic nature. On economy falling for the first decade of independence Moldova "has overtaken" not only Russia and Ukraine, but even Tajikistan. These years Russia and Europe began to get acquainted with Moldavian гастарбайтерами. The power has failed, leaders Soviet "оборонки", huge high technology manufactures, the light industry enterprises communicated. In literal sense of this word. It was the rare in own way a situation on all space of the CIS. Here it was a consequence not so much bankruptcy of the well-known "transition period", how many that political policy which was spent by a then management. The country conducted to association with the next Romania. And for this purpose there should not be barriers - neither economic, nor social. And the large enterprises just also were such concentration of thousand experts, highly skilled workers which such scenario was at all to liking which could show the organised resistance to the policy Moldavian-Romanian "Аншлюса". This absolute obstacle then politicians have cleaned together with the enterprises, having transformed only some of them in the covered markets. About the same it was observed in agriculture. The well-known Moldavian vineyards were cut down.
For eight years of board of Vladimir Voronina the country has got absolutely other shape. Level of a total internal product of 1991 is practically restored.
That happens in Moldova in February, 2001, became the real sensation. The spring of public discontent has jerked with such force, that just right was to name political events in this country original "velvet revolution". The Moldavian parliament following the results of the last elections on 70 % has passed to absolutely other political force and is perfect other politicians. The twist of fate consisted that communists became this won party. For the first time they have come to power in the European history parliamentary by. For the first time have selected the speaker, the government and the president.
Then nobody trusted in viability of all of this too exotic change of the power. Many the international isolation and destruction prophesied to Moldavian president Vladimir Voroninu only couple of months of board the country which, appear, unconditionally waited a default. But the history has disposed differently. Has passed eight years. On this way in 2005 communists win again parliamentary elections, and Vladimir Voronin the second time becomes the president. The latest sociological interrogations speak about that, as on the nearest parliamentary elections which will take place in some months, this party will win again. And to Moldova today any more do not threaten neither absorption by a neighbouring country, nor political defaults, especially, international isolation.
For eight years of board of Vladimir Voronina the country has got absolutely other shape. Level of a total internal product of 1991 is practically restored. In comparison with 2001 the country budget has grown four times! And it on that doubtful economic base which Воронин has received in the inheritance from the predecessors. The salary has grown six times. Pensions - in eight times. Poverty level is twice lowered. Moldova today it is, of course, still far not the rich country, but to inhabitants of this country to eat than be proud. They have really managed to lift the economy from the real ruins. The new enterprises, power stations are under construction, iron and highways, on Danube are constructed the bulk-oil terminal and the "dry" port, transformed Republic Moldova in the sea country. Now this small state is quite capable to pay gas delivered to it. Whether it is possible to name such country really poor? Language does not turn.
In present Moldova very young government. Vladimir Voronin has carefully grown up very professional command. Vice-premiers, ministers - from 29 till 35 years. When them you ask, as they managed to follow such way of stable development as it has turned out in the country in which there is either some no gas, or an oil, other minerals as it managed to be made without the essential international help answers of these young modern professionals should surprise.
I will list you the list of these answers. And any of them is not entered in those known alphabetical anti-recessionary actions which we had possibility to observe all last years on an example of other countries.
Judge. Representatives of a presidential command sincerely consider, that simply human relation to people - to veterans, pensioners, youth, science officers became the first and main push to economic growth. One of the ministers, not so similar by the form on the romanticist and an idealist, speaks: "In 2001 all of us to these people have told: you are really worthy большего. While we at the power, we will be with you. We began to lift salaries and pensions. Our opponents shouted: populism, contradicts market laws. And it, on the contrary, has led to growth of solvent demand, has started economy, has installed sensation of stability and reliability. And and so eight years".
Further - it is more. Воронин forces the government to reduce the profit tax. As a result from 32 % this tax falls to a zero mark. And budget incomes only increase in the meantime. The Moldavian communists enter one more know-how, a so-called guillotine. So officially in Moldova disposable liquidation of thousand подзаконных the certificates constraining development of the enterprise environment is called. The ruthless knife of this guillotine already fell upon the Moldavian legislation, chopping off from it fruits of departmental zapretitelno-allowing creativity of local officials twice. In the same spirit and other measures - capital amnesty, tax amnesty and registration of the enterprises in one window. As a result in the four-million country appears more than 300 000 new workplaces.
Agree, one paradoxical, risky decision behind another! But my supervision have allowed me to find one more secret of success of a command of Vladimir Voronina:
The Prorussian eurointegration.
Such eurointegration, appears, happens. On idea, it also should not be another. Simply last years we have got used in the slogan of the European integration which was mastered by some our neighbours, to see only new form русофобии, the form of struggle against certain demons of the past which do not allow to calm down to leaders of the vulgar revolutions. Such incomprehensible, absolutely not familiar while wide public process of the European integration is observed in Moldova. Probably, for this reason the Russian management values relations with small Moldova. Probably, also Russia in the aspiration to help with the decision of a Dnestr question therefore is so sincere. "I see quite good chances to reach conflict settlement in Dnestr region", - Dmitry Medvedev at a recent meeting with Vladimir Voroninym in Sochi has told. And this position of the Russian president has serious enough bases.
Vladimir Voronin has appeared the first Moldavian president who has signed the base contract with the Russian Federation in whom Russia and Moldova were proclaimed strategic partners. After half a year Воронин declares a course on European integration. This foreign policy course has allowed Воронину not only for ever to remove with the agenda a theme of possible association with Romania, but also to solve variety of problems which seemed unsoluble in a political configuration existing on that moment. Judge, leaning against support of Europe, Воронин spends in parliament the law on national minorities, and then - and the so-called concept of the national policy which has fixed Russian in Moldova as language of international dialogue.
Surprisingly and that the course on European integration Воронин spends, declaring simultaneously about inadmissibility of the introduction of Moldova in NATO in any prospect. The neutral status of the Moldavian state is fixed in the Constitution, and constant popularisation of a neutrality has led to that in today's Moldova its supporters are overwhelming majority. The reliable guarantee of preservation of such status the Moldavian president sees in the decision of a Dnestr question, in voices приднестровцев which never precisely will give the preferences to the North Atlantic alliance.
The Prorussian europeanization of Moldova was very brightly expressed that all last years the Moldavian government very actively transforms the country into space enough perspective dialogue between Russia and EU. For example, activity of Moldova on the European direction was expressed that this country has acquired the right of asymmetric trade with the European union. So active policy within the limits of the CIS has allowed Moldova to create zones of free trade with the majority of the countries of Commonwealth. As a result the Republic Moldova in which there was extremely liberal economic climate, became extremely interesting today to those European companies which are ready to build the enterprises focused not only on internal, but also on the Russian market. At the same time Moldova in this quality becomes the convenient country for the Russian cooperation with Europe.
But, perhaps, the original European approach of this state and its present heads consists in their is demonstrative-careful relation both to Russian, and to Russian history, to its monuments, including monuments of the Soviet epoch. It is very symbolical, that after arrival Воронина to the power the first museum which has been restored from a non-existence, there was Pushkin's museum. Vladimir Voronin very much is proud of that for years of its board in Moldova two majestic memorials in honour of heroes of the Great Patriotic War are erected that on all country is restored and reconstructed more than 800 monuments to the fallen Soviet soldiers which in Moldova continue to name liberators openly. Anything similar not known by any former Soviet republic. It is difficult to name poor the country if, despite of obvious complexities, she dares to restore medieval monasteries of Russian orthodox church. Yes, such country certainly is the European state invariably strengthening friendship with Russia.
Simply human relation to people - to veterans, pensioners, youth, science officers became the first and main push to economic growth.
I departed from Moldova with sensation of pleasant surprise. I did not guess, that absolutely nearby there is a whole state in which sincerely love Russia. The command of president Voronina made the not ordinary, risky decisions when it was still completely not clear, than all this romantic invention will end.
The efforts directed on a survival, to competitive development of the whole people, can turn back large success if these efforts go a hand about a hand with conscience and usual decency. In Moldova all has turned out so is and there is a Moldavian phenomenon.
(Moscow - Kishinev - Moscow)