Mass media choke without advertising, processes in the media market change reference points, from edition the information, and INFLUENCE is required not. Mass-media are created by a field on which mass-media страняет a variety of opinions gather united by the general idea, mass-media are created by a society... The Journalism will amputate and there and then fits a prosthesis such major bodies of destiny, as, for example, a responsible personal choice. As a result results of elections appear much more co-ordinated among themselves, than without journalism. And the society becomes possible. Therefore mass-media are means mass инкубации which grow up identical pictures of the world in heads.
For performance of the problem of mass-media operate with the information, analytics, estimations, now still emotions and it is a lot of than. But all is only account material. The main product developed in mass-media, - at all the information, and navigation in the reference points which have received the sanction of a society.
The trade of the journalist - to catch the social order for consolidating pictures of the world, to cut variety of superfluous opinions and to transform few selected themes in читабельность. It occurs at thematic planning and the subsequent writing of texts.
In this sense journalists act not as authors, and медиаторами between the social order for orderliness and private demand for suitable reference points. For this society also pays to journalists, and not only money, but also a recognition of the special status, as a matter of fact, - priestly. Медиаторы naturally are mediums. The branch and is called - media.
THE INTERNET - THE AGENT OF DISINTEGRATION.
There is no time, when the number of public relations has reached запорогового values, not allowing already to people to become organised in direct dialogue, this work have made mass-media. Now not only the quantity of separate people with their pictures of the world, but already and quantity of groups of people again reaches запорогового values. Threat атомизации and society disbalances has returned at second, higher level of complexity.
Naturally on a scene there is an Internet. While it is not clear, whether there is it new means of consolidation or itself is a consequence also the tool of decomposition, society crushing. However there are bad suspicions.
It seems, the Internet in itself at all does not serve unification of opinions, more likely, on the contrary. Unprecedented earlier simplicity of authorship and simplicity of access has provided to individual pictures of the world unknown reproduction. Thus the acceleration of publicly thrown out judgements leads to their unevenness and still большей to a fragmentariness.
Theoretically, on the Internet there could be points of assemblage of senses as there are mass-media in a society. It is possible to assume maturing any general the Internet-majdanov and толковищ, recognised and the sanction on elimination superfluous and manufacture of reference points.
But the Internet develops in a consumption epoch. When reliable ways to establish not only IP, but also подушевой a profile of the Internet person (where went, than was interested) will be found, in the Internet shaft selling technologies and an other Herbalife will rush. Possibility personal таргетизации on the big files will lead to that дезинтегрирующий the Internet potential will increase extremely. And consolidating - so while it is not found out. In this okroshka the person of the future will be lonely.
The Internet in itself still should solve this problem and to think out such яндексы which will not search necessary, and to eliminate the unnecessary. Already it is time, in general.
LET'S STRIKE THE REVISIONISM ON ADAM SMITH.
But if to look more widely the Internet itself is a consequence of global technological reorganisation and time compression. Progress has simplified, has accelerated and has increased personal and mass messages between people so, has provided sublimation of public private opinions and private pictures of the world.
It would seem, here new big work for mass-media - to eliminate superfluous opinions and to establish the general reference points. Why speak about the end of mass-media?
Because wrongly consider as a product of the journalist the information. If mass-media sell to a society the information - yes, their monopoly has ended. The quantity of channels of a mass information transfer was increased and diversified. And in this sense of mass-media, especially printing, are looked by a lovely vestige of yesterday, as a steam locomotive or phone with a disk.
But it is necessary to take a true hypothesis that mass-media sell not the information, and reference points, and at once it becomes crystal clearly: the same factor - information sublimation - should generate mad demand for radical function of mass-media - to create reference points. For this reason, by the way, now most demanded speciality in journalism, - at all the reporter, and колумнист.
But if demand for social navigation (demand for mass-media) grows in process of strengthening дезинтеграционных processes then that for crisis grieves nowadays media community?
Most likely, it is crisis of industrial model of consumption of mass-media. Journalism is in a fever before the introduction into the postindustrial society, not which all lines are still clear. And instead of definition of these lines media people voluntary слепнут also cling to the old. A classical shock of the future.
The political and economic doctrine of capitalism obliges mass-media to be objective and independent. And it is ostensibly provided only with commodity model of mass-media in which the basic sources of a gain is advertising and circulation sale. It is similar to the Chicago boys and other monetarism according to which the correct device of economy conducts to the correct device of a policy. Media monetarism. Such is prevailing model of consciousness of mass-media which has grasped also Russia, and almost last 10 years.
But if to refuse from жупела informings and to recognise as true appointment of mass-media development of reference points objectivity is not so necessary. It is more than that: the medium is always subjective, it is one of key conditions of a trade.
Ridiculously and the requirement of independence of mass-media. Being in itself body of public censorship (selection of useful pictures of the world), mass-media can perfectly do without a freedom of speech which, generally, is exported from other conceptual system - political. Not that that is absolutely fine, but - can. To go behind examples far it is not necessary, enough to reach the TV.
Thus, ideological substantiations of commodity model look romantic loan from other area - from democracy area. The commodity model does not have bases or its basis are not connected with journalism. And are connected with extraneous ideals (freedom of speech) or earning money (only business and anything more).
Symptomatically and that notorious crisis of mass-media surprisingly coincides with an economic crisis. Whereas in days of old any crisis (read: destruction of reference points) necessarily led to rough blossoming of journalism. But the commodity-consumer approach has made journalism business, and as any business, the journalism became a victim of economic shocks.
False understanding function of mass-media, this model in consciousness of its agents in literal capitalist sense монетизирует essence which for a monetization are not adapted. Thereby it lowers mass-media on level of branch of economy, receiving all blessings and risks of business.
The payment mechanism in commodity model is that: the verified content to collect an audience and to collect from it money, then the same audience to sell also to advertisers. The internal conflict is put already in pawn: the audience wants at all that advertisers. From here infinite struggle of editions of such mass-media against advertising services.
But the main problem of commodity mass-media here in what: for the best уговаривания they have shown to the advertiser a myth, that advertising in mass-media is almost technology of direct sales. If so on advertising calls should go. And calls do not go, if only it not the newspaper of announcements. Because advertising in mass-media at all is not selling. Is not the best way of direct sales more precisely. For direct sales for a long time already there are much more effective and not less mass ways - the call-centres, direkt-marketing, «наружка» and so on.
Probably, problems with efficiency measurement, and with the efficiency of direct advertising in mass-media, just also cut advertising receipts - one of business bases of commodity model.
However even during a consumption epoch the commodity-consumer model far does not settle all forms of a public payment for services of mass-media. I believe, that this model provides today hardly probable 42 % of all payments to editions from a society. And its weight will be reduced. Other payments are provided any otherwise.
Delivering to a society the reference points authorised by a society, mass-media become influential. Providing in shapeless fields of the importance a point of assemblage of senses, mass-media are capable to collect people. Gathering of people and influence on them - here the main sorcery of journalism. Certainly, these abilities of mass-media - a tidbit for any other institutions, the interested influence on weights of people.
Mass-media and are interested to receive means of subsistence. And as anybody directly does not pay for abstract function of development of reference points, it is necessary to sell the traffic (advertising). But the problem that the traffic provided with mass-media, is slowed down, loses efficiency, concedes to other channels of bulk sellings.
Losing monopoly for the traffic, mass-media, similar, gradually get off on sale of the second part of the sorcery - influence sale. Mass-media - still (also will be always) - condensers of the social order and индукторы the social importance. In it they out of competition, and their this part of "special mission» - out of danger.
On remaining still while the traffic, and the traffic entering (the reader is interested and thematically предуготовлен), mass-media start to create the various services connected with sale of influence.
Now discussion of economic aspect of journalism always is settled by discussion of commodity model - receipts from advertising and a subscription-roznitsy. From here panic gaugings of advertising and summoning up courage official reports about a subscription. And on the basis of these gaugings conclusions and forecasts become. Thus the most part of economy of mass-media does not undertake at all in calculation.
Nobody estimates volumes of those services of mass-media which are connected with performance of the private order within the limits of the order social. Satarov to consider economy of bribes which provides financing of the device of the power in more essential volumes, than the budget has learnt. In mass-media of such analysis while is not present. But has put at all in volumes.
The matter is that on change of commodity model of mass-media, probably, there is a convergence of the private and social order as way of financing of mass-media a society. Separate signs of this global process are known for all: notorious «джинса» and so on. But to estimate the tendency as a whole while it was possible to nobody. Distract experiences concerning falling advertising.
ALTERNATIVE ECONOMY OF MASS-MEDIA.
It is necessary to understand as the mean private customer at all only the "jeans" advertiser. It is necessary to recognise as the private customer any subject having the initiative to mass-media - whether it be the lobbyist, corporation, the advertiser, or even the reader-subscriber.
After all public interest is abstract. There is no such body which would express it. Only the journalist or the editor are capable to catch and formulate it. Everything, that was born not in a mystical professional trance of the journalist or the editor, - the private order. Even if the customer very large - the power. Because a part, even the greatest, - all the same not whole. And the order from a part - private.
There is a considerable quantity of solvent private customers by which any more so are interesting to mass-media as the traffic, but are always interesting to mass-media as influence. Therefore, feeling devaluation of the traffic, mass-media all the same continue to test unextinguishable and solvent demand for the influence.
For example, all know, that the advertiser wants not modules, and texts more and more. And that texts went without a mark «as advertising» and feigned fair journalism. Here one of external formal signs of the future convergence of the private and social order.
But it is pressure from the outside. Mass-media from within too conduct active search of mechanisms of such convergence. We will try to list some of them, the most scale and already proved (the truth, from very bad party).
First of all, of course, it «джинса». Many editions observe themselves and put against "jeans" barriers of this or that degree of durability, but as a whole volumes "jeans", probably, grow.
There are absolutely black schemes of convergence of the private and social order. For example, sale of "stops" or "blocks". Editions incur obligations not to touch unprofitable themes for the external customer. It is an additional private option in the advertising contract more often, but it is clear, that advertising sense of such contract, - feigned and serves only for legal registration of transaction.
In many cases of "foot" directly follow from forms of the joint-stock property on mass-media or investment injections - feeding hand do not bite. It - too updating of the social order in interests of the private payer.
Extreme degree of the same scheme - blackmail by publication and a payment for неопубликование. The social order consists in that the society has learnt the discrediting information on the mighty of this world. The private order of these strong - such information to conceal. Journalists, having executed the social order partially and having collected such information, then try to execute the private order and it not to publish. Here such convergence. In some cases penal and already punished.
The establishment of special relations of mass media with corporation or authority (department) is served by protective advertising (force dependent structures) or a corporate subscription. The corporation or department can sign the structural divisions on some thousand copies. Formally like would provide the employees with the important reading. However it is the feigned transaction.
In general, притворность economic sense always testifies to that convergence of the private and social order. For example, if the certain corporation supervised by a political group, redeems допэмиссию media holding it is possible to consider economic sense of such transaction feigned. And even is more thin. Media holding actions, theoretically, can really grow sometime in the price and then the investor will receive real profit. Probably, even ненамного that, that it would receive, having enclosed these means in another way. But it is clear, that it not investments, and конвергентная a payment for «special mission» mass-media.
Possibly, any case of occurrence of the new investor in large media holding in present conditions is impossible without the political sanction or even the political commission. And it means, that business motives such the investment do not settle all circle of motives. There is also political (that is private) the order of this or that degree of a subtlety and предъявленности.
It is possible to analyse any rather large media acquisitions of last ten years from this point of view. And we will see there ears конвергентной models. In some advanced editions this convergence remains non-realised, but its potential - is doubtless. Under any conditions it can shoot. Performance of the sacred social order is located under supervision from private representatives интересантов. And this supervision is converted in the investment. Or even in the right to existence for mass-media.
All federal television channels - the most powerful generators of the traffic and влиятельности. Many of them are profitable also profit receive from advertising, that is like from the "fair" market. But there would be there that advertising if these television channels had no political sanction on existence? Here also it turns out, that their main active - not advertisers, and the sanction of the political customer. Advertisers are secondary. Strictly speaking, the huge advertising gain of these television channels too can be carried not into the account of commodity model of payment of mass-media the advertiser, and into the account конвергентной models.
About дотируемых television channels to argue it is not necessary at all. Convergence of the private and social order there is carried out literally and взасос. By the way, it is not always harmful. Television channel "Culture" - is useful. However, it is that rare case when the private order almost completely coincides with the public.
Still it is possible to classify and describe forms of convergence of the private and social order for services of mass-media on open spaces Zamkadja, but it long. And there too a considerable file. Moreover, there advertising-subscription models - in general stepdaughters.
At last, it is turned out many semilegal grey schemes of convergence of the private and social order. First of all, it is various special вкладки, спецпроекты and спецрубрики where the theme is heated under the advertiser. This such guessing of an urgency which is carried out by edition still as though within the limits of the social order, but already under problems of private payers.
The most paradoxical consists that all described special cases конвергентной payments of mass-media, as though they were not blamed, totally all the same make a payment appointed a society on the maintenance of institute of mass-media for its high public mission. Also it is huge means. And advertising it is still proud, but already nervously smokes aside, passing on cheaper cigarettes.
Considerable part investment, advertising and even subscription, and also other financial receipts of mass-media it is necessary to charge to convergence of the private and social order. If will be медиасатаров which all it will count up, - it will be rather curious. But it is already possible to tell, that phenomenon scales are great and surpass "fair" advertising-subscription receipts.
Naturally, influence sale, unlike traffic sale, leads to mass-media to not simply loss of trust, but also to blasting of bases. How to trust a society in offered social reference points, if in these reference points already вшита the fair share of the private order? Certainly, the society - not the fool, and all understands it. From here the corresponding relation to journalists.
Convergence of the private and social order, probably, грядет besides someone's desire or unwillingness. To that economic preconditions, replacement of an industrial society postindustrial, and also washing out former - commodity model of consumption of mass-media conduct. Estimations to an event are pertinent, but they will not stop a steam locomotive.
Sounds, probably, it is too fresh, but the problem can look so: the media community should search for ways легитимации in public consciousness of comprehensible forms of convergence of the private and social order.
Strictly speaking, a problem not new, especially for the Russian mass-media. Any 20 years ago the media community made considerable efforts for advertising legalisation. As a matter of fact - for legal sale of the traffic which then was in a novelty and terribly irritated a society. Certainly, the public tolerance to advertising was developed, more likely, явочным rather - a habit. But there were also special explanations. Echoes of those processes still sound, for example, on air «the Echo of Moscow» when in front of the advertising block start up a slogan: «there Will be an advertising - there will be also"Echo".
Attempts to find legal forms of combination of the private and social order are already undertaken by advance parties of media which, however, yet do not realise it. But they agree to carry out подряды for state bodies or participate in state tenders, search for formats of custom-made special issues comprehensible to a society, etc.
These experiences of media avant-guard cause polemic. Whether it is possible to take from the power the award for влиятельность the platform? Whether it is possible in вкладках to heat a theme not in interests of edition, and in interests of the advertiser? A prevailing conclusion: if for such projects to construct a good fence - it is possible.
However it is necessary to recognise, that the technological decision with enclosing, is an ineffective heritage from the previous stage, from commodity model in which it is necessary to mark advertising with a badge that from it to build up true journalism.
The present convergence of the private and social order occurs when the payer appears is really involved in editorial activity. Sounds monstrously. How to legalise such technologies in the opinion of a society, and whether they are possible in general, - a question of the next five years.