The Moldavian Utopia or incident Воронина. Sergey Ehrlich's research, the candidate of historical sciences, the director of publishing house "Нестор - History". The newest history of Republic Moldova has contained in itself not only destructive anti-Utopia together with poor ideology, but also shy attempts of introduction of a Utopia. The two first forms of outlook dominated all years of the Moldavian independence. Whereas Utopia sprouts have arisen exclusively in board of party of V.N.Voronina. To show, what even the inconsistent utopianism gives kind shoots, it is necessary to make short digression to history.
Наканунеразвала the USSR Moldova was one of the most safe islets of the Soviet archipelago. At the initiative of Russian invaders the industrial agriculture with huge cattle-breeding complexes, the considerable process industry consisting of set canning and wineries here has been created. But the most important thing - in cities of Moldova large manufactures in the field of radio electronics have been placed. Building of huge computer factory came to an end.
These preconditions provided good conditions for start in the free market future. Certainly, serious modernisation, first of all, the defensive factories stuffed with the expensive equipment was required. (I remember, how us schoolboys drove on excursion to factory "Signal" and with pride showed import machine tools ценою in millions dollars.) presence of the big number of the trained shots allowed to solve this uneasy problem. Moldova at a competent management had every chance to combine technological potential of a Silicon Valley with harmless agriculture.
Ничегоэтого has not occurred. Квласти people at all свчерашним, аспозавчерашним фольклорныммышлением have seized, incapable to solve problems завтрашнегодня, problems of an information civilisation. The poet and in Moldova is more than the poet. Dead Grigory Vieru has aphoristically expressed destructive spirit of anti-Utopia in which the Romanian idea in Moldova has instantly degenerated: «the computer factory is not necessary To us. I have nothing to consider».
The idea, саморазоблачительно stated Виеру, has seized weights. Computer factory and together with it other hi-tech enterprises have sunk into oblivion. Only it is not necessary to write off this self-destructive process on inevitable consequences of a transition period. Such total crash of the industry was not anywhere in the European territory of the former USSR. Something comparable occurred only in Tajikistan.
Насовести president Snegura (1991-1996) - disorder of the industry and развязывание the civil war which have led to territorial split of the country.
President Luchinsky (1996-2001) has finished agriculture, having accepted to execution the program of ground privatisation imposed by Americans «Пэмынт». Any soberminded person will understand, that division of rural grounds into small "quotas" - the conscious diversion directed on destruction of the competitor Californian винпрома. Moreover, into "quotas" it has been divided not only the earth, but also other material actives: cattle-breeding complexes, tractor brigades, irrigating systems etc. too were easy for expecting Consequences of similar "privatisation" of capacities. Skeletons of huge complexes can be used today only as scenery of films about survived in thermonuclear war. Luchinsky's American advisers can be happy: milliard investments of Russian colonizers are successfully nulled.
The anti-Utopia of ethnic intolerance and the liberal ideology which has added it of the "economic efficiency", were in the ninetieth years at the power, have left without work of hundred thousand people. Since then and till today the small country lives mainly labour export.
Voting for ПКРМ in 2001-was a retrochoice of the despaired people.
Proromanian интеллигенцияупрекала after that the people that it has exchanged a primogeniture of national freedom for a lentil soup of anti-Utopia ГУЛАГа. These reproaches are incorrect. First, silly to consider, that Moldavians are so silly to wish returning of bloody times of generalissimo Stalin. Actually, the Moldavian voters, tried to depart from booths of voting of years on thirty back to rather full and soft enough "stagnation" of marshal Brezhnev. Secondly, it is impossible to reduce motives of their choice exclusively to шкурным to reasons. Anticommunistic critics material односторонности Marxism why that forget, what not bread uniform the person is live. Memory of a Brezhnev's epoch attracted many Moldavians to no small degree because by then antiutopian lines of archipelago GuLaGa were a little softened, and through them it was possible to distinguish traces of a humanistic plan of the Soviet Utopia. In all honesty, you cannot assert, that no such Utopia existed. Were «Club of film travel», «Obvious - improbable», "From the bottom of the heart", «Good night, kids». There was «a Science and a life», «Knowledge - force», «Technics - youth». There were clever books, outstanding films and kind cartoon films. There was a Planetarium in church near to KGB building. There was a society "Knowledge" in the former meeting Of noble family. There were free concerts of classical music in the Open-air theatre. There were sports sections and mugs of the Palace of pioneers. All it and many other things allowed us, despite lie of ideology and meanness of the power, to feel people. Voting in 2001 for communists, people, замордованные brutal anti-Utopia of national exclusiveness and cannibal ideology of "economic efficiency", actually voted for warmly human relations, for love, for a Utopia.
Critics eight-year коммунистическогорежима if it, certainly, not intellectual наперсточники, should begin it with that recognition, that ПКРМ has come on the ashes. Communists have accepted the country with an external debt of sector of the government of 815 million US dollars, average pension 86 леев, the average salary of doctors 230 леев and teachers 247 леев. Those who write off all present troubles of Moldova exclusively on president Voronina and its party, can be characterised in a word - geeks.
ОцениваяВоронина, этилюди for точкуотсчетаберут, on меньшеймере, Jesus Christ. Certainly, чтотретьему to the Moldavian president it is very far to such absolute. But if we start it to compare with Снегуром, Luchinsky and Гимпу we will be convinced, that it is incomparable above and the predecessors and the more so present врио. Yes, Воронину many lacks inherent in each of this guilty Trinity are peculiar. But all of them together do not possess also a small share of its doubtless advantages. Has come to estimate comprehensively time eight-year activity of this uncommon person on a post of the head of the Moldavian state.
Намойвзгляд, V.N.Voronin-figura tragical. Вегодуше it is inconsistent were weaved a Utopia with anti-Utopia. The anti-Utopia, unfortunately, has won. But it unique from Post-Soviet heads of our country whom the Utopia has noted the fleeting presence. Thanks to elements of inconsistent utopianism Воронин, will become history with a positive estimation of descendants.
Воронин, along with the contemporaries Luchinsky and Снегуром, has passed typical vital school of the representative «new class» (It is pardoned Джилас) the term "nomenclature" was which self-name. If to ponder, even in stagnant позднесоветское time when bloody Stalin cleanings have got out of fashion, the destiny of party shots was unenviable. They have been compelled to speak constantly correct words of a Utopia to "solidarity of workers». And in actions have been obliged to be guided by ideology of "a new class» - the state capitalism. The internal conflict of "work" and "capital" constantly threatened to be resolved by a schizophrenia - a dual personality.
In aspiration to be saved from внутреннегосамораспадабольшая the part партноменклатуры ran into extreme cynicism. Its representatives tried, that utopian slogans: «All for the blessing of the person! And we even know, how call this person» - flew away from them, as peas from a wall. But soul not a stone wall. She persistently demanded anaesthesia. To all to whom for forty, the typical shape of the appointee is memorable - the noble grey hair shaded ruddy cheeks and a sizo-red nose. The party grandfather a frost did not hesitate of the nose: «It after all with our banner of colour of one»!
Нарядусциничным people whom, with the big share of convention, it is possible to name conscientious met the majority врядахпартократов. Certainly, to do career, they had to go not once against own conscience. But they, at least, remembered, that conscience at them once was. And in those microscopic limits of freedom which were left it by ideology госкапиталистизма, these people tried to correspond to precepts of a communistic Utopia.
Of them «the Lenin modesty» was peculiar to much household. It they sympathetically listened to actor-six-foreman Michael Nozhkina: «And in Lenin's museum - only a coat raked, two suits old yes pair of boots». In our proletarian on a social composition a school class затесался the son of the considerable official. He put on also modestly, as all of us. Together with us dreamt of "firm" jeans. And the tape recorder at me has appeared even earlier, than at it. The nomenclature daddy, according to «precepts of Ilyich», considered, that his son should not be allocated against children of "workers".
Воронин, judging by стилюего presidential board, belonged to minority not completely to alien spirit of the Soviet Utopia. There is a legend, that in days of work as the secretary of the Bendery city Communist Party organisation it suited the study in the inhabited house-long-term construction, has brought there a folding bed and has declared, that remains there while the house which has received in the people a name «воронинский», will not be handed over. Probably, that the given story about the next feat Moldavian Геракла - only an apocryphal invention агитпропа ПКРМ. At the same time skills «critics of sources», got on истфаке the Kishinev university, allow to admit, that in this history reality particles contain, at least.
Drugoeistorichesky act Воронинсовершил вдолжности the minister internal делМССР. More truly этобыло недеяние. On November, 10th 1989 (in day of militia!) Crowds of the thugs armed with providently brought up gravel and bottles with an incendiary mix, attacked the central office of the Moldavian Ministry of Internal Affairs. Воронин, also as well as twenty years later, has not given the order to apply force. It is possible, certainly to consider, that disorder of the USSR thereby has been accelerated. Really, after success of this action supporters of the Popular front have received a signal what to be afraid it there is nothing. But on the other hand, dividing the similar point of view, should not forget about analogue of the Kishinev events: on April, 9th the same 1989 general Rodionov has dispersed participants protest non-stop in Tbilisi, using in quality «спецсредств» саперные shovels. Blood has spilt. The general have badgered собчаками. Unless it has prevented or has at least kept away the disgraceful end of the Soviet union? In Kishinev then too have been brought a victim. Brainless Moldavian teenagers remained to live ценою blood of soldiers-srochnikov of the internal armies left under carpet камнеметанием of thugs. Because of it many and condemn today then decision Воронина. But even they should recognise, that its choice was not the decision of colonel Skalozuba. Yes, quite probably, that during that critical moment general Voronin remembered sad destiny of general Rodionova. But similar трезвомыслие does not exclude that indecision was, at the same time, display of fidelity of a Utopia (in interview Воронин time and again recollected, that it was a pity to it to deprive of a life of the teenagers who have run into fury), in which name it and has betrayed then ideology of the nomenclature class.
Carried out Воронинымреанимацию the Moldavian communism такжетрудно to explain внеутопического a context. Who in Moldova of 1993 could assume, what in 1998 communists become parliamentary party, and in 2001 take the power? If it was a question only of realisation of the hypertrophied imperious ambitions, Воронину followed, with ready smaller risk, to play, like set of the former Soviet functionaries, on an ideological field comprehensible to Post-Soviet establishment. The member of the CPSU who has become after 1991 communist, was perceived by the nomenclature colleagues-werewolves, as a mute reproach, as, really, the outsider. And on new promoted workers of "a new class» it operated literally, as a red rag on a bull. To assert, that Воронин simply all has calculated for eight years forward, means to erect Vladimir Nikolaevicha in a rank of the greatest geniuses of mankind. At all respect for this uncommon person, it, in my opinion, all the same, does not possess so distant insight. So, that without the factor of utopian altruism and this stage of his career convincingly to explain it is impossible.
Having headed the country in 2001 Воронин a smog realise not only imperious ambitions. Fidelity to utopian dreams of the Soviet youth was clearly reflected in social measures of its eight-year board. Refusal of ideology of "economic efficiency" was the first display of utopianism. Using this spell, the Moldavian authorities in the ninetieth years consistently dismantled social sphere. For the sake of notorious economic efficiency regional hospitals, rural schools and culture houses were closed. Воронин has stopped this process. For this purpose communists had to refuse for a while credits of the IMF which are given out to their predecessors on the security of cannibal reduction of "social costs». Thus, nobody released from return of the international credits mostly reasonably enclosed by the Moldavian officials in the elite real estate, the communistic government. It regularly paid under accounts of the former governments. Contrary to scepticism of economists of western training ПКРМ has found means for "unprofitable" hospitals and schools. Consecutive increase of pensions, salaries of doctors and teachers has begun. For eight years they have grown approximately at 7-10 time. Unfortunately and by 2009 social payments and salaries in social sphere remained scanty. Besides, the rise in prices inevitably "corrected" nominal increase. But the fact remains the fact - the state will directed on protection socially weak, has been shown. Pensioners in the majority have estimated it, in spite of the fact that the size of payments due to them and has not reached a living wage. It was important to elderly citizens to feel, that to them concern not as cattle, that them respect, i.e. consider as people.
Trying to discredit achievement ПКРМ, opponents assert, that to communists has simply carried, as their stay at the power has coincided with world economic lifting. In their opinion if president Luchinsky managed in 2001 to keep the power we would observe same, and that and even more successful social picture.
The history, of course, does not know a subjunctive mood. But I perfectly remember, how in 1998 Luchinsky, looking in the television chamber, have declared to the Kishinev pensioners complaining of dearness: «Kishinev - a city for rich. Sell apartments. Move in village». This statement of one of last secretaries of the Central Committee of the CPSU does not give the bases to believe, that the typical representative of the cynical majority of the Soviet nomenclature would dare to refuse a share of a pie of the International currency fund for the sake of well-being of the Moldavian old men, doctors, teachers.
We, also, have a possibility to compare efficiency of social policy of the communistic government of the poorest country of Europe with measures of a management of great raw power for the same period:
The salary public health services
Unfortunately, it was not possible to find data of the Russian statistics under the salary for 2009. In Moldova this year, so to say, in the electoral purposes of the salary of state employees were it is unprecedented are increased. So doctors - 2718,2 леев began to receive the teacher on the average 2135,6 леев, and. It, accordingly, in 8,6 and 11,8 times more than on the eve of arrival ПКРМ to the power. But also it is enough available indicators to be convinced - rates of growth of pensions and salaries of workers of social sphere of Moldova in days of board of communists, at least, did not concede to the Russian. I will remind, that it were years when Russia choked with petrodollars.
Difference comparison вВВПна to a shower населенияиразницы впенсияхизарплатахсвидетельствует, чтовРМ in board of communists was given to social sphere considerably большее attention, than in the Russian Federation:
Gross national product, pensions изарплаты (in US dollars)
Gross national product per capita (2009)
The salary formation (2008)
The salary public health services (2008)
To мерамсоциальной population protection it is necessary to carry organised crime eradication also. For eight communistic years in Moldova have forgotten about custom-made murders, racket, stealing of cars. People have so got used to a low crime rate that have started to think, that public safety is provided somehow by itself. Only rough resuscitation of underworld in the first months of board "Alliance" forces the Moldavian citizens to recollect, that for maintenance of their calmness communists in days of the board have shown persevering state will in struggle against criminal elements.
Другойаспект Utopia realisations всеобщегоблага былсвязан смодернизацией infrastructures. Countrymen of Moldova practically deprived of woods, from first years of independence of Russia have faced a problem of heating of the dwellings. It is clear, that Moldova - not Siberia, but also here five months in a year without heating not to survive. Country son Vladimir Voronin perfectly realised, literally, vital value of this problem. Formulated on ленински the program of full gasification of all country became for it priority. For eight years natural gas had been provided 93 % of the Moldavian villages.
Scale воронинской programs is especially appreciable at comparison with successes of Gazprom in business of gasification of the fatherland. In 2008 gasification of Russia has reached 62 %. Thus in a countryside it on the average totals less than 50 %. There are regions where gasification does not reach 5 %.
Absolute covering РМ has been planned by a gas network on 2010. But government "Alliance" has stopped the gasification program, as "economically inefficient". This cannibal spirit has been approved the IMF, to allocated liberal "reformers" new credits under disorder of the Moldavian society.
Gasification not unique infrastructural project ПКРМ. Efforts Воронина Moldova in 2006 became sea power. 400 (four hundred!) the metres of the Danube coast left in 1940 command of Joseph Vissarionovicha at the disposal of the Moldavian people, have been used for port Dzhurdzhuleshty building. It means, that many export-import transactions can be carried out now without intermediary of the Romanian and Ukrainian neighbours, i.e. without additional transit and customs payments. Thus, competitiveness of the Moldavian goods increases and the import price in the Moldavian market decreases. Port Dzhurdzhuleshty has been connected with Kishinev specially constructed railroad line. It is remarkable, that in great Russia during 2001-2009 it has not been constructed any port, any kilometre of railways.
It is necessary to carry to successful infrastructural undertakings of communists and distribution of a network the Internet practically on all settlements of Moldova. Value of this project for progress of an information civilisation is difficult for overestimating.
Unfortunately, defeat on elections of 2009 not позволилореализовать the project строительстватранзитного international аэропортавМаркулештах. Probably, the project of cooperation with Chinese company "COVEC" has sunk into oblivion also. According to 2009 memorandum signed on July, 23rd of intentions the Chinese party should allocate the milliard credit for the concessionary terms which should be used in various infrastructural projects, first of all, in road building. In case of realisation of these two scale projects Moldova would receive practical possibility to embody the utopian mission of the centre of West east contacts, in their economic transport ипостаси.
Третийблок successful actions of government Voronina has been connected with the macroeconomic reforms directed on attraction of investments. The conclusion in 2006 agreements with the European Union about a dissymetric mode of trade was the big achievement of the communistic government. According to this agreement 12000 of categories of the goods can duty-free be exported from Moldova to the EU countries. Acceptance in 2007 laws on legalisation of the capital and tax amnesty had the important economic consequences. Except the measures taken out in heading the law also provides introduction of the zero rate on реинвестированный the profit tax. All it has led to that in 2007-2008 in the Moldavian economy has been invested 800 million US dollars - as much how many for ten years' докоммунистический the period of the Moldavian history. Thanking these and other measures Moldova has taken the fifth place in a rating of a world financial solvency for 2008, published by magazine «The Banker» (the appendix «Financial Times»). Justice of opinion of the British experts has proved to be true in the beginning 2009 when the rouble has fallen concerning dollar approximately to 40 %, and pour and remained in эрегированном a condition.
Much smaller былпрогресс вдуховной to sphere. Probably because for were партработника Воронина high culture-it overindulgence.
Заметныесдвиги произошлитолько вотношении кпамятникам, symbolically expressing cultural wealth of the Moldavian peasants, - values of Orthodoxy and a victory in Great domestic war.
Under direct контролемВоронина outstanding monasteries have been restored some. Now in Moldova is what to show to foreigners. There was a prospect of development of such mass direction as orthodox tourism.
In memory овойне by six-ten years' anniversary of the Great victory in 2005 in all settlements monuments to fellows villager, victims on fields of battles have been repaired. The huge Memorial of military glory in Kishinev has been restored. The grandiose memorial complex on Sherpensky base of the Jassko-Kishinev operation 1944 is constructed. As opening of this unique for Post-Soviet times of a monument to war heroes has coincided with the period of an aggravation of Moldavian-Russian relations the Russian mass-media have amicably become silent solemn ceremony of opening of an impressing memorial complex.
And the last one after another, but not on value. Unique, perhaps, идеологема, которуюкоммунистам удалосьвнедрить вобщественное consciousness-predstavlenieopolietnichnoj the Moldavian nation. According to the concept полиэтнизма - all loyal citizens of Republic Moldova are Moldavians. Thus they keep the ethnic identity. The European understanding of the nation as the subject of a policy, sharply distinguishes Moldova from биологизаторских approaches in an ethnic question, propagandised on the post-Soviet territory.
Such detailed обзорплюсов восьмилетнегоправления Воронина былпредпринят on very простойпричине. People in the majority are very ungrateful. Good they quickly forget or perceive, as something self-evident. I consider, that antiutopian lacks of person Voronina necessarily should be considered on a wide utopian background of altruistic movements of his soul which have led to considerable salutary practical consequences.
Remember, how at Dostoevsky the angel tried to pull out the greedy old woman from a hell, unique kind business of a life which was луковка, once submitted it нищенке? Angela has suggested the old woman to seize a thin small stalk of that луковки and the beginnings for it to pull upwards. The small stalk will tear and is eternal to it to burn in an infernal flame. I do not know, for what other heads of our country, but Воронину can grasp in a similar situation, thank God, for what will keep. It is assured, that on total Court which is necessary to each of us, the listed kind acts will move. The history proceeds!
Sergey Efroimovich Ehrlich, the candidate of historical sciences, the director publishing houses "Nestor-histories" (SPb), the author of books "Russia sorcerers" (SPb.: Алетейя, 2006), "myth History (Herzen's Decembrist legend)" (SPb.: Алетейя, 2006), "a mutiny Metaphor: Decembrists in political rhetoric of Putin Russia" (SPb.: Nestor-history, 2009)