Today the second has passed in the city of Beltsy "a round table" public consultations. The pre-election platform project is discussed on a theme "New industrialisation, modernisation of agrarian sector and the optimum power policy in Republic Moldova". The first meeting and discussion on a theme "the Human capital. Tools of rescue and ways of reproduction
" there was a city of Nisporen.
Opened a round table the report of the former presidential adviser for economy, and nowadays the deputy from oppositional ÏÊÐÌ Oleg Rejdmana. The deputy, the ex-adviser of the president for economic questions has placed special emphasis on necessity of new industrialisation of Moldova and has set the fashion to the subsequent performances. Ðåéäìàí has reminded of that chain of events which has followed after disorder of the USSR. « In the structural plan the republic economy has lost industrial character: the industry share in gross national product manufacture has decreased to 31,8 % (in 1995), capital investments - in 10 times, number occupied in the industry - on 51 %. There was a structural shift towards reduction of a share of mechanical engineering and light industry, both in production, and in export. Industrial output in 1995, to level of 1990 has made 44,2 %. 35 And on the city of Kishinev, the most industrial city of republic - 39 %. Thus the share dominating in republic in the eightieth years of enterprises VPK, the most high technology and technically modern, has fallen from 11,4 % to 0,77 % in 1995. Level of use of capacities on overwhelming majority of kinds of production has passed through an admissible mark of a threshold of break-even ».
Owing to the inept and inefficient industrial policy, and, more precisely speaking, because of its absence the next four years volumes of manufacture of an industrial output have fallen to third.
Degradation proceeded prior to the beginning of zero years, and in their second half last Strategy of development of the industry for the period till 2015, confirmed by the governmental order ¹ 1149 from October, 5th, 2006 became the fullest and system document. «It is I estimation, a member of Central Committee PKRM, and an estimation of expert and scientific circles», - Oleg Rejdman has specified.
He has listed measures which board PKRM has had time to undertake within the limits of this Strategy and effects which have followed the given steps. However to begin with the economist has paid attention to accurate understanding of problems of the country which has been designated in that document: understanding, to the present authorities the inaccessible.
In Strategy our weaknesses are in details defined. Among other this preservation of strongly pronounced agrarian structure of economy with high relative density of the industry based on processing of agricultural raw materials; prevalence in structure of industrial sector of the branches focused on manufacture of the goods with low added cost; a low level of development of an industrial infrastructure; absence of real progress in attraction of direct foreign investments into industrial sector; the big disproportion between an industry level of development in capital and in other regions of the country.
At the same time variety of risks which the potential investor faced has been formulated also: high degree of a regulation and áþðîêðàòèçàöèè enterprise activity; instability of the legislation, especially regarding the tax and budgetary policy; high dependence on imported power resources; territorial dissociation of republic and weak cooperation between the industrial enterprises of the left and right coast of Dnestr; growing deficiency technical and qualified workers of shots for the industry; rupture strengthening between level of preparation of professional shots and real requirements of industrial sector; low level of direct foreign investments into industrial sector.
«In republic deficiency of a labour accrues. And it becomes one of defining factors for possibilities of expansion of industrial production. The cheap qualified labour in Moldova - now it no more than a myth. Since 2000 all population of our republic without Dnestr region was reduced from 3639 thousand persons to 3581,1 thousand following the results of 2006, and economically active population - at once from 1655 thousand to 1357,2 thousand persons. Average number of the industrial and production personnel has made to the beginning of the second term of board of communists only the tenth part from this quantity», - the former presidential adviser recollects.
Correctly certain risks and problems have dictated also the measures included in Strategy of industrial development till 2015. «Applying various tools at realisation of this strategy, it was possible to stop industrial recession, actual äåèíäóñòðèàëèçàöèþ Moldova», - has declared Ðåéäìàí.
It is necessary to carry to these measures both ðåãóëÿòîðíûå - Ãèëüîòèíó-1 and Ãèëüîòèíó-2, licensing in one window, and tax - tax laws stabilisation, acceptance budgetary-tax policy for half a year prior to the beginning of application, and stimulating - the VAT for the enterprises created both functioning in a province and the zero rate of surtax on ðåèíâåñòèðóåìóþ profit. As a number of measures on system restoration professionally - technical education for preparation of personnel has been accepted also. Some successfully developed ÇÑÏ and industrial parks. It is necessary to consider results of application of these measures modest because they were applied with care. «But these results also have proved the chosen strategy and necessity to it strictly and resolutely to follow», - the economist is assured.
Separately it has expressed opinion that problems of our economy and employment cannot be solved only through small and average business, and has resulted a concrete example. «This business really shows the high efficiency when it is formed at the large industrial enterprises», - considers Ðåéäìàí. «Factory" Èíôèíèòè ": hangers, polygraphy, cardboard a box - all import because of the VAT. And seamstresses-motoristki are not prepared absolutely not, do not hold speeds which give out sewing-machines - it was necessary to alter these cars. All 300 pieces. In the country there are no technologists, there is nobody to put the master, and the Polytechnic University prepares« Þäàøêèíûõ and Çàéöåâûõ ».
«Today it is clearly visible where, efforts should be concentrated to what directions for shift in industrial development. First of all, on investments. Any are important: local and foreign, state and private, but, the main thing - straight lines, instead of ïîðòôåëüíûå», - has declared Ðåéäìàí. «The last, - he has noted, - too do not stir, but they do not create the new capital, new actives». «What difference, that the enterprise belonging« Âàñå "has bought" the actions Ïåòÿ "or" John », - money has received« Âàñÿ », and has left to have a rest to Canary Islands, and at the enterprise as there was a lathe of one thousand nine hundred shaggy year as behind it one turner who was issued in 1970 from school ìåòàëëèñòîâ by it worked. Ôåäüêî, where now a theological seminary so all also remains».
The economist is assured: that direct investments to the investor became favourable, that he wanted (already shivered!) To earn in Moldova it is necessary to create conditions: to return the zero rate of the tax of a pas invested profit and to extend it for 5-7 years; to Renew return of the VAT for investments into a province, i.e. outside of Kishinev; to stabilise a tax policy and to declare it for half a year before introduction in action; to receive conditions cheap (concerning) gas, heat, an electricity; to stimulate ýíåðãîïðåäïðèÿòèÿ to development of own infrastructure of networks, instead of at the expense of the subscriber; to allocate the most perspective industrial êëàñòåðû. The lecturer has straight off offered a little such êëàñòåðîâ: manufacture of special pumps; manufacture of means and systems of not destroying control for pipeline and ground transport, and also for aircraft engineering (the market in the east of the Russian Federation-China a gas pipeline, building of a broad gauge Vienna-Far East, the joint project øèðîêîôþçåëÿæíîãî the plane in the Russian Federation); manufacture of control systems by a climate in the closed ground on the basis of reaction of plants; Manufacture of the automated control systems by branches at regional and national levels; manufacture of a vegetable and fruit children's food from production of organic agriculture. Behind it, - according to Oleg Rejdmana, - the order for experts in HIGH SCHOOLS, the order for preparation of personnel should follow the Ministry of Public Education, the order of Academy of sciences of Moldova (that there was no time to take down monuments, - has joked Ðåéäìàí).
But the main thing, in its opinion to offer this all on the East and to agree about gas and electricity costs, to agree with the Left coast about industrial and power cooperation. Without new industrialisation we will not manage to break to new quality of a life for members of the Moldavian society. The industry share in gross national product not less than 20-25 % is necessary to us "." The organised class of the people united by an industrial problem, organised in the collectives, realising coincidence of the interests - individual, collective, corporate with radical interests of a society, the country and the power conducting to maintenance of these interests »is necessary To us, - Oleg Rejdman has summed up the performance.
After the former presidential adviser for economy acted economist Galina Shelar which spoke about «ðåèíòåãðàöèè Moldova as about the factor of maintenance of power safety». Without reduction in norm of level ýíåðãîïîòðåáëåíèÿ and elimination of warps in system of manufacture and energy consumption on two coast of Dnestr a problem, as she said, not to solve. «And, I, probably, will tell a cynical thing, but more cheaply this problem will solve in the incorporated state», - have noted the expert. It has cited some statistical data. «If the right coast provides itself with the electric power of own manufacture only for 20 percent on the left coast energy could not be put», - has noted the expert.
Besides, as she said, at that level of expenses for gas by manufacture which we face in Moldova to speak about «new industrialisation» it is impossible. To eliminate this warp, alternative energy sources, and reduction in price of the price for imported gas are necessary as more ýíåðãîýôôåêòèâíûå for the technology.
Economist Vissarion Cheshuev has paid attention to necessity of state regulation for power sector. «The western advisers say to the Moldavian authorities, that state regulation is inadmissible, however to themselves these councils do not try on, because in France, in Germany, to the Great Britain, the state regulates the tariff policy, instead of so-called independent agencies, like ÍÀÐÝ. They can develop methodology, but last word should be behind the government which, except other, is responsible for consumer ability of the population», - speaks ×åøóåâ.
Today, as he said, tariffs are regulated by National agency on regulation in the field of power, and it becomes carelessly on possibility of people to pay under current tariffs. «They follow the methodology which is starting with ðåíòàáèëüíîñòè the share capital, that is arrive how it is to favourably natural monopolies, but not to citizens and not economy as a whole». «Here also it turns out, that tariffs grow since 2008 though in the world the price for oil to which finally these tariffs are adhered» falls, - has declared ×åøóåâ.
He also has paid attention to necessity of serious changes for area of calculations of a consumption level at «a final stop». «During Soviet time at Kishinev factory" Signal "« clever counters »which today use, for example, in Finland and in Norway have been developed so-called, de facto it is the counters made in Moldova, but in Moldova at anybody not established», - the economist marks. «Owing to many reasons connected with low ýíåðãîýôôåêòèâíîñòüþ, Moldova cannot leave a vicious circle: if today in EU the share of expenses of energy in the added cost of end production makes 2 percent at us - 12 percent», - has noted ×åøóåâ.
Later the theme ýíåðãîýôôåêòèâíîñòè rose in many reports. In particular, acting on ecological questions, deputy Violetta Ivanov has declared, that alternative energy sources, such, for example, as that are a consequence of the hi-tech approach to processing of a firm household waste are necessary for Moldova. This thought was continued by public figure Igor Kaldare, which has explained what to count as on panacea on all kinds of alternative energy, it is not necessary to Moldova, and the accent needs to be made on the technologies connected with reception of energy at processing ÒÁÎ.
«When Minister of Economics Lazer says, that by 2020 is planned to translate Moldova on a wind power and the sun is a deceit: in our environment it is impossible and do not trust it because to promise such is it is equivalent to the promise to pay from next year pensions in the size in 1000 euros», - has told Êýëäàðå.
With reports on a situation in agrarian sector have acted deputy George Popa, which has given the retrospective analysis of degradation of branch in 90th years of the last century and businessman Alexey Rybalko (Agro Piese TGR), told how in zero years the branch has started to leave a pique. «Thanks to the thought over state policy on fields since 2002 there was a new technics, start up not the advanced, start up it were Soviet still tractor type, but for the first time in the country have delivered the new technics; then process of consolidation of the earths has begun, and in some years there were large manufacturers and proprietors - and consolidation should be continued, however with application of the newest already technologies: the combined units and exact agriculture». «The unique problem is a liberation of hands on village because with application of new technologies employment in agriculture will fall», - has noted Ðûáàëêî.
Oleg Rejdman has resulted the Soviet experience as an example. «When during Soviet time ploughs have replaced on a tractor, the liberated agricultural population has rushed in cities, for these people built hostels, however the correct decision - to transfer manufacture more close to hands - in areas later was accepted, and at each large enterprise regional branches» have started to appear, - the deputy speaks.
The state, in its opinion, should not only stimulate consolidation of the earths, but also regulate this process. «First of all the state should provide the rights of the small proprietor from which the large businessman buys the earth, to make all that he has not been deceived», - the economist has noted.
Deputy Edward Mushuk has mentioned an urbanistic theme. According to its analysis, after the process of an urbanization which was taking place during Soviet time, Moldova in 90th year has comprehended äåóðáàíèçàöèÿ, if not ðóðàëèçàöèÿ cities. «The urban saturation has fallen from 50 percent in ÌÑÑÐ to 40 percent in modern Moldova», - has declared Ìóøóê. At board PKRM this problem dared creation of concessionary terms for the experts coming for work in a countryside, introduction of tax indulgences, however today these actions are curtailed and äåóðáàíèçàöèÿ again grows.
Formally the situation remained former - 40 percent of the population live in cities. «But each of us knows, that it for cities: except Kishinev, Beltsy, Tiraspol, Bendery and still a three of settlements, cities our regional centres to name it is impossible. The rural type of manufacture There prevails, the infrastructure there is destroyed, there there is no investment», - has declared Ìóøóê, having reminded about the Program of 40 cities which has been initiated several years ago by Party of communists. «De facto the urban saturation in Moldova does not hold out today to 34 percent, and on United Nations classification is a sign even not not developing, and ñëàáîðàçâèòîãî the states», - has declared Ìóøóê.
«The state should act in a role of a regulator and the creditor of development of the Moldavian cities as it has been made in due time in many West European countries and in South East Asia is means to apply certain tax measures of stimulation, to create free economic zones and business incubators», - has declared Ìóøóê.
Ïðèìàð Vasily Panchuk the main representative of a receiving party has paid attention of Beltsy to topical character and the deep economic analysis presented in reports, having noticed, that anyhow everything, that everything is conceived, and, that will be reflected in a pre-election platform, to execute it is necessary to local authorities. «Therefore, it is assured Ïàí÷óê, - the following power, and I am assured, that today I address to representatives of the following power in Moldova, should conduct the adequate policy at local level because local authorities are a basis of statehood».
«It is necessary to leave from practice of transfer to areas and cities of the powers which are not possessing a financial covering, it is necessary to leave from formation of local budgets by a residual principle and to enter specifications on budgetary directions. Situations when Beltsy, for example, lists in the consolidated republican budget more than one and a half billions ëååâ annually, and in exchange receive only 300 million in the form of the budget local, to repeat should not» more, - the town governor has declared áåëüöêèé.
The forum which some hours have lasted, closed the third president of Moldova Vladimir Voronin. It has reminded, that ahead three more such actions after which working out of the full text of pre-election platform ÏÊÐÌ will begin. «It is important, that work did not come to an end with these meetings: each secretary of the primary party organisation should finish the maintenance of today's discussions to citizens of the country then we wait from you for offers and additions which can be included in the total document», - the leader of opposition has declared.