Hundred days - flight normal. Right after appointments as the first assistant to the prime minister madam Zynaida Grecanui has given interview to our newspaper. And then the arrangement has been reached, that in 100 days it again will meet our correspondent. It has constrained the word, and today the observer "NANOMETER" talks to it Sergey ЕВСТРАТЬЕВ.
- The Mrs. the first vice-premier, whether the indicators which have been put in pawn in the budget-2005 on inflation, a course лея, to volume of manufacture and services, taxation are reached?
- Is better on this question figures will answer: inflation on the end of year has made 10 % it it is better, than we expected; the course лея in relation to dollar has practically coincided with the course which has been put in pawn in calculations of the budget, - 12,6 лея for dollar. Though here it is necessary to make the reservation - a course лея as that was not a planned target, and only - settlement. Therefore in the monetary policy of National bank of Moldova it is defined as free-floating. In relation to 2004 budgetary receipts have increased on 29 %. It also has provided proficiency of the general budget in 758 million леев. Other good results are reached also. In particular, the external debt on the end of 2005 has gone down on 6 percentage points and has made 32 % from gross national product. Though it is less than in 2004, but has grown on 6,3 % and industrial output. It is necessary to notice, of course, and gross national product growth in first nine months 2005 on 8,4 % that is an absolute record for the country for last 15 years. Certainly, it is result of laborious work of all our society and purposeful efforts of the government in advancement of economic reforms. It is assured, in the near future all of us we will feel results of nowadays introduced reforms.
- I know, that in the activity you give special attention to industrial sector where the greatest added cost is created. How affairs in this sector and what is undertaken for branch development really are?
- We aspire to that growth advanced gross national product growth and then we will receive not only quantitative increase in this indicator, but also qualitative in the industry, at the expense of higher added cost mentioned by you. From the above-stated figures it is visible, that while our industry develops more slowly, than all economy. And it means, that in the given sector of reform move ahead insufficiently quickly. At present experts of the Ministry of the industry and infrastructures, in close cooperation with scientists of Academy of sciences, develop strategy of development of the industry of Moldova. It will be the basic document, which overall objective - increase of competitiveness of production of the Moldavian industry.
- Still recently unknown frosts raged in Moldova. Fortunately, it has not resulted in serious negative results, and we did not remain without energy. You head the Moldavian delegation at negotiations with Russian "Gazprom", and, apparently from results, successfully enough. What prospects of formation of the price for gas after the first quarter?
- At first I wish to underline, that positive results of the Moscow negotiations are a merit not only one Гречанной. All our delegation worked as the uniform, harmonious command, managed to finish to our partners in negotiations the serious, given reason position. It also has yielded result. At present we receive the Russian gas within the limits of the agreement operating till April, 1st of current year, at the price of 110 US dollars for 1000 cubic metre. Simultaneously there is an arrangement, that till the end of February we will be defined and we will conclude the long-term contract. We believe, that the price on which Moldova begins to import the Russian gas after the first quarter, it will not be essential to differ from current.
- Not less serious problem with electric power purchase. МолдГРЭС offers it under the price considerably exceeding former level. What real situation for us and the forecast till the end of a year?
- The existing problem with purchase of the electric power from МолдГРЭС is a problem of two economic agents - the companies Union Феноса and МолдГРЭС. On November, 8th, 2005 МолдГРЭС has unilaterally stopped delivery of the electric power for the company Union Феноса as last has disagreed on purchase of the electric power of 1 kw \hour at the price of 4,08 cents, instead of earlier co-ordinated - 3,05 cents. Certainly, the government watches closely this situation and undertakes all measures for maintenance of power safety of the country.
- Energy corrects the world. And any country respecting should provide the power safety. Whether we have the corresponding program?
- The National program on power supply for 2003-2010, developed according to the Law on power supply, Power strategy of Republic Moldova till 2010 and to governmental order РМ "About measures on reduction of expenses for power resources in national economy", according to requirements of a power charter now operates. The program on maintenance of power safety is now in a working out stage.
- Deficiency of trading balance has already reached 1 billion леев. The formula 2 on 2 Now operates: import - 2 billion, export of goods and services - 1 billion, labour export (гастарбайтеры) - 1 billion However гастарбайтерство inevitably leads to social losses. Probably, it is necessary to change structure of export and to expand импортозамещающие manufactures. What government position in this direction?
- Currency transfers of the Moldavian citizens from abroad not simply cover trading deficiency, but also create demand for the import goods. Owing to what in Moldova it is observed some kind of consumer boom. The domestic goods corresponding to tastes and requirements of buyers while it is not enough. Our real sector of economy yet in a condition to the full to take advantage of raising demand, and as is known, piously the place is empty does not happen. Government actions in the given direction are concentrated to creation of optimum conditions for business dealing, on attraction of investments and a direction of the same ремитенций in economy, instead of in consumption.
- Some countries develop special programs for decrease in size of import on creation and expansion импортозамещающих manufactures. In the same foreshortening, probably, it is necessary to consider and developed structure of import.
- Basically, strategy импортозамещающего manufactures were popular enough in 70-80th years in some countries of Latin America. But from the economic point of view they have proved the inconsistency. After all, as a matter of fact, it is offered to create artificial barriers to import in exchange on more expensive Moldavian analogues. In my opinion, is much more perspective to achieve competitive advantage and to focus manufacture not on internal, narrow, the market, and on the external. And, in my opinion, it is enough examples of such healthy business. And considering import structure where the lion's share is made by power resources with which we have nothing while to replace, we can tell with confidence what exactly through growth and диверсификацию export we can improve commercial and the balance of payments.
- The big censures and scientists and farmers are caused by dissociation of the farmland which has appeared as a result of introduction of the program "Pamint" which in the people have nicknamed "mormint". Excessive dissociation of the areas creates illusory visibility of independence of peasants. It brakes both country development, and increase of well-being of people. Whether there is for the government a program on consolidation of farmlands?
- Considering the economic and social importance of agricultural sector, the country Government pays special attention to problems of this branch. One of them is insufficient application of effective agrotechnologies that is caused by high level of crushing of agricultural grounds. Defects of an agrarian policy of 90th years of the last century have led to that in the majority of regions of a field are divided into small sites that does impossible or unprofitable use of technics for processing of the earths. It finally is reflected in profitability of manufacture. The especially negatively given circumstance is reflected in investments into branch, including into long-term plantings - gardens and vineyards.
Solving the given problems, the Ministry of Agriculture and the food-processing industry plans to introduce, in cooperation with representatives of the World bank and other international organisations, some pilot projects on consolidation of farmlands. Consolidation of the earths will be spent only at the initiative of peasants and is exclusive on a voluntary basis. It is convinced, that successful introduction of plans on consolidation of farmland will form a good basis for notable growth in agrarian sector of the country.
- Being the Minister of Finance, you never subjected to the rigid criticism banks. Whether your position in this respect now when you already supervise all economic block of Moldova has changed?
- Commercial banks are regulated by supervision body (in this case it is National bank of Moldova) and a market mechanism. If both that and another function normally problems with commercial banks should not be, therefore and to criticise them it is not meaningful. But if in bank sector shortage of a competition and to this problem there is a approach is felt: for example, attraction of foreign banks. It - both competition improvement, and necessary "know-how". At present the desire to enter the market of Moldova was expressed some by foreign banks.
- On elections примара Kishinev you typed the majority of voices twice. Preparing for elections, you have, of course, studied a condition of economy of capital. Whether there are special economic programs on development of Kishinev? And your opinion why municipal bonds for replenishment of the budget of a city are not issued?
- The current legislation allows local governments to be in arrears, which in aggregate should not exceed 20 % of their budget. These debts can be formed including at release of bonds. But it is not necessary to forget, that at purchase of any bonds the investor should be as follows is informed on prospects of municipality, its monetary receipts and so on. For this purpose also there are such instructions from party NKTSB. Well and if municipalities all the same do not let out the bond, a question to them: or such tools are not necessary to them, or - them are not able to let out.
- Following the results of 2005 on a securities market the lowest is fixed for last 8 years volume of transactions on purchase and sale of actions. At normally developing economy rates of growth of this indicator always above, than growth industrial or an agricultural production. At us on the contrary. It confirms once again correctness of our president who has noticed, that the National commission on securities is in an anabiosis condition. What measures намерено to accept the government for position correction?
- НКЦБ as the state body on securities market regulation, is not accountable to the government. It is independent body on the self-financing, accountable to parliament. That at all does not mean, that development of the share market is indifferent to the government. НКЦБ has developed the Concept on improvement of the share market. We will watch its introduction and if the commission does not consult itself - we will help it. In a long-term plan acceptance of the new law on a securities market is planned.
- The strange picture turns out. You supervise all economic block, and its one major sector to you is not subject. You are absolutely right, that the law on a securities market needs to be changed, as well as the law about НКЦБ. The market now, in essence, is blocked. By that it is done by the established rules under the announcement of tender offers on purchase and sale of actions. And also special definition of a manipulation when any transaction it is practically possible to recognise illegal because of неучета requirements аффилированности. РЦБ Moldova is the market of control packages. Their owners, naturally, in the joint-stock company supervisory boards appoint the persons, and those become at once affiliated persons and cannot carry out the transaction of purchase and sale of actions in a normal mode. Process is slowed down in tens times. РЦБ should be liberalised and, of course, it is not uncontrolled. Such is unanimous opinion of professional and nonprofessional participants РЦБ. And neutral persons should develop laws on it. Because in the world there were no cases that the official himself has limited the rights.
At you new loading was added: you are appointed by the national co-ordinator on realisation of the plan of measures, directed on election of Moldova for reception of the help within the limits of the American fund "Calls of a millenium". What our chances to receive this help?
- The fact of that our country has been invited for participation in the program "Calls of a millenium" (or "Millennium Challenge Account" - the name which, believe, in fast будующем owing to the importance and to scale of an involvement of a civil society will be at all on lips), speaks about correctness of steps undertaken by us in business of democratisation and development of our society. For "admission" to means of this fund the countries-candidates should pass original examination in 16 "subjects", or the indicators reflecting a state of affairs in the field of a state administration and development of a society, degree of economic freedom and corruption level. While we have some debts, on the indicator "the corruption Control". Accordingly, the main efforts of our society should be concentrated on this specific direction.
Feature of the given project is that its success depends on involvement degree as the country top management, and all civil society. Thus, "examination" hands over not only the country government, but also all our society. We will wish all of us of good luck, the blessing fists for us is to whom to hold.
- It completely agree with you. Good luck! thanks for conversation.
P.S. The largest aircraft designer, academician Andrey Tupolev considered once the project of the new plane. Rather arrogant director of the enterprise reported, resulting the big calculations on economic efficiency of the new car. Tupolev, having listened, has declared: "will not depart!". The lecturer has puzzly looked at the master and has asked: "Why?". The answer was unexpected: "Ugly!".
Our first vice-premier beautifully works also decisions which she achieves, are economically beautiful. We will hope, that they will be beautiful and socially. For Zynaida Grechannaja well understands, that the government main task at each stage - truly to estimate a share of the past which can be kept in the present, and a share of the present which can bequeath the future.