According to investigation: the geological. "We poor and unfortunate because the ill fate has deprived our bowels of minerals". About such words are quite often audible from the big and small tribunes, sounded by government officials of a high rank. However live and the people of Belgium, the Netherlands, other Central European states deprived, as well as Moldova, deposits of precious metals, oil fields and gas prosper. Meanwhile, Zambia and Nigeria as if blest Эдем, are much allocated by everything that earth bowels can give: gold and diamonds, iron ore, other valuable minerals. The people, to put it mildly, do not flourish.
Whether well and ourselves so are poor actually? Whether the nature has deprived bowels of the Moldavian earth of fossil riches? In search of the answer to these and other questions the correspondent of "Independent Moldova" Dmitry SIDOROV has met the general director of the State agency on Republic Moldova geology "AgeoM", the madam Gene Прано ЖАЛАЛИТЕ.
The geological service of the former USSR, and then and РМ, was repeatedly renamed. There was a geology Ministry, then the State Committee of geology and protection of bowels. Then again the Ministry of geology and protection of bowels. Change of signboards has not avoided this structure and in Moldova. Since 1958 - geology Management at Ministerial council MSSR. Later - ON "Молдавгеология". Since 1992 - the Republican production association on prospecting works РМ "AGeoM", and since November, 4th, 2004 - the present name.
In 1991 the budget of geological service of republic made 5,5 million roubles. Now agency state financing, in comparable standards of price, was reduced more than in 15 times. The organisation earns additional means rendering of services on a contract basis on investigation of deposits of nonmetallic minerals, mineral waters, drilling of chinks.
During conversation with Gene Прано I do for myself the first opening. It appears, "AGeoM" is not only investigation of minerals and studying of bowels, but also monitorings of dangerous geological processes, underground waters, гидрогеодеформационного the fields, such cataclysms being harbingers, as landslips, erosion of soils, earthquakes and flooding.
- It is necessary to observe constantly of changes of geophysical fields and levels deep водоносных horizons, - tells Gene Жалалите. - After all before earthquake they change the characteristics. Many factors - from purely space to gravitational fields and many other things are considered. We have ranges with the drilled chinks on which many characteristics are measured and investigated and laws which can be harbingers of the destructive natural phenomena and extreme situations are studied. The affinity to the dangerous centre of earthquakes in area Vrancha transforms also our Moldova into the hostage of elements - a seismodangerous zone. There were also especially dangerous earthquakes, the huge destructions which have brought to the country with human victims. We will tell, 8-mark in 1940 and 7-mark in 1976. Weaker - some times in a year.
The school course of geography with the frightening pictures illustrating constant movement литосферных of plates on depth to 120 kilometres is recollected. Accumulation of critical pressure also leads to sharp dump of energy. And then on an earth surface as if houses of cards, fall buildings, burying under themselves all live.
In "AgeoM" try to do forecasts of earthquakes. At the same time anybody in the world cannot predict these terrible yet and destructive natural phenomena with absolute reliability. Besides for forecasting of similar cataclysms high-precision and expensive devices are required. Despite poor financing, here have managed to buy the new equipment for monitoring of harbingers of earthquakes which allows in an automatic mode, to make necessary gaugings. Helps it and an agency computerisation. On the Internet with мониторинговых sites in the south of republic data are transferred, together with processed on the computer. In "AgeoM" намерены to strengthen cooperation with scientists of Institute of geology and seismology АН РМ which have turned out considerable experience in this sphere. Consider necessary to adjust cooperation in this area with experts of Romania, Ukraine, Russia that will allow to predict events more precisely.
- Earthquakes - not unique danger, characteristic for republic, - enters conversation the main geologist of agency Jury Ilinsky. - In country territory it is registered 17 thousand active landslips. Only in capital about such 70 sites. It conducts not only to destruction of industrial and civil objects, but also for centuries deduces from a turn farmlands. Add also such dangerous geological processes, as овражная erosion, plane washout of soil, flooding, a karst. In particular, flooding - a serious scourge of the big cities when subsoil waters rise, flooding not only cellars of houses, but also provoking increase of seismic danger.
By the way, all data on monitoring of harbingers of destructive geological processes "AgeoM" transfers to Department of civil protection and extreme situations of Republic Moldova. Эх to know where you will fall - straws would lay.
From the file "NANOMETER":
Gene Жалалите was born in Lithuania. The hydrogeology and engineering geology has ended the Kiev prospecting technical school and the Odessa state university on a speciality. In Moldova lives since 1971 Worked on the Moldavian hydro-geological expedition, headed service of monitoring of underground waters. In 2003 г, the governmental order it is appointed by the general director of the State production association "AGeoM"
The rate is accepted. On bowels
- Till now we reflect on the negative collisions connected with geological processes in deep bowels of the earth, - continues Gene Прано. - But the same processes in many respects form also our riches. I can not agree, that Moldova is poor on underground minerals. Well-known, that it is impossible to find even a land part where Mendeleyev's all table would be presented. And let we do not have large oil fields and gas, but doing the rate on nonmetallic minerals, it is possible to confirm: we are rich enough. Obviously, to someone it is favourable, as if a spell, again and again to speak about scarcity of underground pantries of republic. Under such cover forming sand, glass raw materials, mineral water are imported to Moldova, бентонитовая clay even. Meanwhile extraction and processing of own nonmetallic minerals would allow to reduce deficiency of the foreign trade balance of the country sharply.
To so-called "nonmetallic" we still will return. For now I was guarded with a phrase of the general director: "There are no large deposits". So, not so large all the same is? It appears, is. And it is a lot of. Till 1972 in republic territory the expedition which has opened oil in a zone of village Valeny of Vulkaneshtsky area worked Moldavian nefte-gazorazvedochnaja. Four nonassociated gas fields are reconnoitered also. Deposits are located on depth to 600 metres. After work have been stopped. Then, probably, defensible. For industrial working out considerable means, technics and experts are required. Besides and capacities of the reconnoitered stocks were insignificant. And here cheap Tyumen oil has gone. The big pipe nearby. Take - I do not want.
There were also other reasons in favour of project closing. Each schoolboy knew, that Moldova - a blossoming garden of the Union, and its main riches - the fertile earths. At last, how to be with ecology if валенское the deposit adjoins a zone of Nizhneprutsky natural reserve?
And what today? Now expensive works on seismic prospecting, deep drilling and operation of these and other deposits for republic are simply very heavy. The same concerns and stocks of the brown coal which is lying down on depth of 40-50 metres. Stocks of the reconnoitered deposits are estimated in 38 million tons. Open-cast minings here not to manage. To dig mines - it is unprofitable. While. It is thought, that all it will be reached by hands. Not ours, so the foreign. After all the American company REDECO on a basis концессионного agreements for a period of 20лет carries out prospecting works and operation of the reconnoitered deposits of hydrocarbons in territory of Moldova c 1995. First tens tons of crude oil are extracted also.
The Moldavian Klondike
- If to speak about original riches of the Moldavian bowels it really inexhaustible stocks of nonmetallic minerals, - tells Gene Жалалите. - And first of all - high-quality building materials of 15 kinds: deposits of cement raw materials - limestone and clay, plaster, quartz sand for glass manufacture, a natural facing stone and пильных limestones - well-known котельца. There are considerable deposits of sand and gravel, karpichno-tile and керамзитового raw materials. At last, unique underground mineral waters.
With Gene Прано it is difficult to disagree. For all is really present treasures. We can receive oil and gas on the pipeline, to deliver is minimum necessary quantity of nonferrous metals. By and large, cargo is insignificant. But to import a stone and other nonmetallic minerals in millions tons - trains will not suffice. And the price in копеечку will fly.
Nonmetallic in Moldova - the present Klondike. Here only it is developed far not in full capacity. And requirements are great. Our interlocutor already mentioned the cement raw materials as which basic components limestones and clay serve. And so, in 1990 in our republic extracted 2 million 660 thousand tons of limestone. Now - three times it is less. And after all domestic cement is recognised by one of the best in Europe. For the sake of justice we will notice, that for last years the tendency of more effective operation of terrestrial bowels is traced. Past year, for example, in republic have made over 430 thousand tons of cement, and plaster extraction for last 15 years has increased from 220 thousand tons to 534 thousand And this quantity of 200 thousand tons has left for export.
Here that the main geologist Jury Fedorovich has told in this occasion:
- Probably, not all know, that strong limestones without toxic inclusions are used and for sugar bleaching, for a filtration of juice and a grape mash. On the eve of disintegration of the USSR only for needs of a sugar industry in republic annually extracted 1 million 370 thousand tons of limestone. Past year - in 30 times less. It is necessary to notice, that all over the world quartz sand - so-called "glass" are considered as the most valuable riches of terrestrial bowels. Moldova has such deposits in vicinities Флорешт and Attacks, in other regions of the country. Before republic declaration of independence it is raw materials it was delivered from Ukraine. Questions did not arise: the prices symbolical, a railway transportation cheap. Besides for our sand a little raised maintenance of iron is characteristic and they should be washed preliminary from clay particles. Without this operation glass left with brownish-green outflow. Good "bottle" glass. For pure and transparent "window" operation on отмывке was required. For whom then it was necessary?
Now Ukraine, having established monopoly prices of quartz sand, dictates to importers the conditions. Time has come to include in a turn own deposits, wholly to provide with accessible and cheap raw materials glass manufacture of the country. Dynamics of growth of extraction was here again designated: from 26 thousand tons in 2000 - to 63 thousand tons in 2005. In Флорештах the glass factory developing quartz sand for manufacture of bottles successfully works. These raw materials are extracted by firm "Terziu-Lux" SRL on the Ataksky deposit. Sand wash and deliver on the Kishinev glass factories. Import of expensive raw materials from Ukraine was reduced to 60 %. So, at skilful managing, it is possible in большей for degree to manage own resources.
The forming raw materials extremely necessary for needs of a steel industry, facing plates from yellow sandstone, high-quality clay, пильный limestone - that stone - traditional котелец of which Kishinev and all Moldova are constructed. It at us it is a lot of all. And on the reconnoitered stocks котельца the republic takes the second place in the CIS after Russia. Its annual extraction reached 1 million 250 thousand cubic metre. In 2000 пильного limestone have extracted only 298 thousand cubic metre, and last year already over 400 thousand And it too the encouraging tendency. The country is completely provided also by sand and gravel stocks, other nonmetallic minerals. We will repeat: Moldova is completely not poor. For it is known, that all over the world the requirement for "nonmetallic" time in one thousand exceeds extraction of other kinds of minerals.
Is also such big group of so-called nonconventional minerals by which the republic also is allocated much. In other countries for a long time are developed and are widely used диатомит and трепел, опоки and кремнеземные limestones.
- We will tell, диатомит - good адсорбент, used for improvement of quality of potable water, clearing of the fulfilled oils and fats, juice, a filtration of sewage, - explains Gene Жалалите. - It is widely applied in a steel industry, and also to preparation of liquid glass. The USA, for example, traditionally export диатомит to Europe, earning considerable money.
Interlocutors show the sample of the most usual brick. Usual at first sight. I am it in hands and I am amazed extraordinary ease. Thus the brick прочен also possesses raised теплоизоляционными properties.
- How many we make it? - I address a question Gene Прано.
- At all, - answers. And through a pause: is any more to me. It is insulting, whether know.
It is insulting Gene Жалалите and to its colleagues and for destiny of "long-playing" mineral fertilizers - глауконитов, containing fair quantity of phosphorus. They it is weak растворимы and have long influence on soil which for last years was strongly exhausted. Still in the eighties in republic have carried out researches with entering глауконитов under corn, a beet, vineyards. Productivity, in comparison with control sites, increased for 20 percent! But works, as usual, have soon been stopped. Fertilizers including phosphoric, went to Moldova the deep river. Happened, behind "uselessness" them buried in a trench, dumped in reservoirs.
- Whether domestic farmers, businessmen in sphere of agrarian manufacture show interest to local mineral fertilizers?
- Interest is, but it fades in process of consideration of expenses for carrying out of prospecting works, including drilling, sampling and analyses, - the general director informs. - immediate return - here and now is necessary to them.
Meanwhile in republic it is already reconnoitered over 400 deposits of nonmetallic minerals. Are developed 122 of them. Stocks of the most valuable raw materials wait for the zealous owners.
Water, water... Around water
Here that it is too expensive even for the richest country so it to import water which потребна really in fantastic quantities. Moldova is provided by stocks of underground waters on the most remote prospect. It is already reconnoitered over 150 deposits in all zones of republic. But, happens, the Buryat of a chink other our business executives, anyhow. And has put - without observance of an operational mode. Cases of pollution of underground waters are known. And while it will be cleared водоносный horizon, there will pass not years - centuries.
- There is Governmental order Э1406 from December, 30th, 2005 about the statement of the Program of water supply and the water drain of settlements of Republic Moldova till 2015. We are disturbed by the tendency of development of water supply of the country at the expense of superficial waters. Their pollution is not excluded completely not. Besides pools of the rivers of Dnestr and the Rod not бездонны. Underground waters are characterised by more constant chemical compound and high quality. The mixed water supply is perspective, - specifies Gene Прано. - Each settlement should have a reserve source of water supply. Huge днестровский the water fence from 65 chinks is capable to give more than 110 thousand cubic metre of water a day and, in case of pollution of the main waterway of republic, in a condition to provide the population of a city of Kishinev with potable water. On 12 areas sources of underground waters for water supply of rural settlements are already reconnoitered, but this work should be continued.
I learn, that scale work on inventory of chinks, which in republic about 7 thousand is now spent. It is necessary to define - what to leave what to preserve or liquidate. In the latter case the chink should be washed out chloric известью, водоносный the horizon to fall asleep peschano-gravijnoj a mix, not having broken a filtration. The surface is isolated by clay and becomes covered by a cement mortal. Expensive business.
And uniqueness of many of the mineral waters reconnoitered in republic is not exaggerated absolutely not. They also total without small fifty types. Among them as medical, medical-table, and purely table. The general director "AGeoM" underlines, that from the middle of 90th years businessmen have opened for themselves this gold-bearing vein and actively were engaged in extraction and release of mineral waters. In agency orders for investigation and an estimation of their stocks on a contract basis arrive.
- The country and deposits of mineral waters for external application is rich. In former years far outside of Moldova balneal resorts in Кагуле, Калараше, Каменке were famous. Preliminary investigation finds also stocks of rare radonic waters, effective for treatment at illnesses of joints, gynecologic and skin diseases, - speaks Gene Жалалите. - not casually districts with curative waters by right used glory of known resorts, involving having a rest with all country and from abroad.
Bowels "in the law"
In republic there is the legislative and is standard-legal base regulating all aspects of manufacture both geologo-prospecting works, and working out of minerals, but she demands actualisation according to new social and economic conditions. There is Governmental order Э1489 accepted in 2003 about the program on application of local raw materials - бентонита, трепелов and диатомитов. It is obvious, that the list of mineral raw materials named in the document, requires expansion. It is possible to extract and process at home and other kinds of minerals.
Certainly, the basic act operating since June, 1993, the Code about bowels is. From the date of its acceptance a lot of water has flowed away. The inter-parliamentary Assembly of the state-participants CIS in December, 2002 has accepted the modelling Code about bowels and недропользовании. The new Law on bowels is accepted and in Romania. These days "AGeoM" participates in work on drawing up of new edition of the Code which will be synchronised with the European Union legislation in this sphere. Our legislators well understand necessity of actualisation of the basic law on bowels and have included consideration of its new edition in the plan of work. Being a member of Intergovernmental council about investigation, use and protection of bowels of the CIS countries, Moldova has joined the Mountain charter, in which basis - strengthening of scientific and technical cooperation, realisation of joint programs and projects.
- On December, 30th, 2005 the government accepts Strategy of reform of the central public management of Republic Moldova. We very much hope that within the limits of this document will be rendered geological service of more attention. Also we hope for increase in financing and the centralised professional training for branch, - notices Gene Прано. - Annual financing for geologo-prospecting works makes, including the VAT, 2,5 million леев. And it is nine thousand percent from gross national product. In small Lithuania comparable to Moldova on territory and the population, on these purposes $2 million is allocated
About shots conversation special. Middle age of workers of Agency exceeds 50 years. Here wait for the first graduates of geographical faculty of the Kishinev state university. Much more difficult with hydrogeologists and geophysicists. It would be rational to use affinity of the Odessa state university where prepare hydrogeologists. It is possible to train geophysicists in Romania or Russia. But the decision of these questions is not included into the Agency competence. To make it follows at intergovernmental level.
Experts for the branch opening for national economy the most valuable source of raw materials are necessary to the country. Active businessmen for development of underground pantries are necessary also. Infinite treasures should serve in bowels of Moldova to the people and the state effectively.